Location: Home > Scientist > Adjunct Professors
Adjunct Professors
 
Name:
Peter R. Crane
Education:
Ph.D
Positions:
Director of Kew
Academic title:
Professor
Postal Code:
 
Subject categories:
Botany
Mailing Address:
Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew
E-mail:
 

Resume:
 

Peter R. Crane is the twelfth Director of The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew – one of the largest, most prestigious and influential botanical gardens in the world. After the investiture following the Birthday Honours of June 2004, he will assume the title Professor Sir Peter Crane FRS.

Direction:
 
 conservation of plant diversity

Achievements:
 

Article:
 
 BOOKS

1.    FRIIS, E. M., W. G. CHALONER, & P. R. CRANE. Editors.  1987.  The Origins of Angiosperms and their Biological Consequences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, x + 337 pp.

2.    CRANE, P. R., & S. BLACKMORE. Editors.  1989a.  The Evolution, Systematics and Fossil History of the Hamamelidae. Volume 1, Introduction and "Lower" Hamamelidae. Oxford: Oxford University Press, xii + 305 pp.

3.    CRANE, P. R., & S. BLACKMORE. Editors.  1989b.  The Evolution, Systematics and Fossil History of the Hamamelidae. Volume 2, "Higher" Hamamelidae. Oxford: Oxford University Press, xii + 356 pp.

4.    LIDGARD, S., & P. R. CRANE. Editors.  1992.  Fifth North American Paleontological Convention, Abstracts and Program.  Paleontological Society Special Publication, 6, xxii + 326 pp.

5.    KENRICK, P., & P. R. CRANE.  1997.  The Origin and Diversification of Land Plants. Smithsonian Institution Press, 592pp.

6.    CRANE, P. R., & P. S. HERENDEEN. Editors.  1999.  The Origin of Modern Terrestrial Ecosystems:  Fossils, Phylogeny and Biogeography.  Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 86: 227-655.


RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS

1.    CRANE, P. R.  1977.  The Alum Bay Plant Beds.  Tertiary Research, 1: 95-99.

2.    COLLINSON, M. E., & P. R. CRANE.  1978.  Rhododendron seeds from the Palaeocene of southern England. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 76: 195-205.

3.    CRANE, P. R.  1978.  Angiosperm leaves from the Lower Tertiary of Southern England. (Summary of a paper read at the First International Symposium on Angiosperm Palaeobotany, Czechoslovakia, June 1977)  Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 30: 126-132.

4.    CRANE, P. R., & G. PLINT.  1979.  Calcified angiosperm roots from the Upper Eocene of southern England. Annals of Botany, 44: 107-112.

5.    SMITH, P. H., & P. R. CRANE.  1979.  Fungal spores of the genus Pesavis from the Lower Tertiary of Britain. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 79: 243-248.

6.    CRANE, P. R., & E. A. JARZEMBOWSKI.  1980.  Insect leaf mines from the Palaeocene of southern England. Journal of Natural History, 14: 629-636.

7.    CRANE, P. R.  1981.  Betulaceous leaves and fruits from the British Upper Palaeocene.  Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 83: 103-136.

8.    CRANE, P. R., & S. R. MANCHESTER.  1982.  An extinct juglandaceous fruit from the Upper Palaeocene of southern England.  Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 85: 89-101.

9.    HILL, C. R., & P. R. CRANE.  1982.  Evolutionary cladistics and the origin of angiosperms. In: K. A. Joysey & A. E. Friday (eds) Problems of Phylogenetic Reconstruction, pp. 269-361.  New York: Academic Press, Proceedings of the Systematics Association Symposium, Cambridge, 1980.

10.    MANCHESTER, S. R., & P. R. CRANE.  1983.  Attached leaves, inflorescences, and fruits of Fagopsis, an extinct genus of fagaceous affinity from the Oligocene Florissant Flora of Colorado, U.S.A.  American Journal of Botany, 70: 1147-1164.

11.    STOCKEY, R. A., & P. R. CRANE.  1983.  In situ Cercidiphyllum-like seedlings from the Paleocene of Alberta, Canada.  American Journal of Botany, 70: 1564-1568.

12.    CRANE, P. R.  1984.  Misplaced pessimism and misguided optimism: a reply to Mabberley.  Taxon, 33: 79-82.

13.    CRANE, P. R.  1984.  A re-evaluation of Cercidiphyllum-like plant fossils from the British Lower Tertiary. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 89: 199-230.

14.    CRANE, P. R., & D. L. DILCHER.  1984.  Lesqueria: an early angiosperm fruiting axis from the mid-Cretaceous.  Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 71: 384-402.

15.    DILCHER, D. L., & P. R. CRANE.  1984.  Archaeanthus: an early angiosperm from the Cenomanian of the western interior of North America.  Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 71: 351-383.

16.    CRANE, P. R.  1985.  Phylogenetic analysis of seed plants and the origin of angiosperms.  Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 72: 716-793.

17.    CRANE, P. R.  1985.  Phylogenetic relationships in seed plants.  Cladistics, 1: 329-348.

18.    CRANE, P. R., & R. A. STOCKEY.  1985.  Growth and reproductive biology of Joffrea speirsii gen. et sp. nov., a Cercidiphyllum-like plant from the Late Paleocene of Alberta, Canada.  Canadian Journal of Botany, 63: 340-364.

19.    SOLADOYE, M. O., & P. R. CRANE.  1985.  Systematic palynology of Baphia (Sophoreae, Papilionoideae) Grana, 24: 145-160.

20.    BLACKMORE, S., E. VAN CAMPO, & P. R. CRANE.  1986.  Lophate Compositae pollen from the Pliocene and Miocene of the Mediterranean Region.  Pollen et Spores, 28: 391-402.

21.    CRANE, P. R.  1986.  The morphology and relationships of the Bennettitales.  In: B. A. Thomas & R. A. Spicer (eds)  Systematic and Taxonomic Approaches in Palaeobotany, pp. 163-175. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

22.    CRANE, P. R.  1986.  Form and function in wind dispersed pollen.  In: S. Blackmore & I. K. Ferguson (eds) Pollen and Spores: Form and Function, pp. 179-202. London: Academic Press.

23.    CRANE, P. R., E. M. FRIIS, & K. R. PEDERSEN.  1986.  Lower Cretaceous angiosperm flowers: Fossil evidence on early radiation of Dicotyledons.  Science, 232: 852-854.

24.    CRANE, P. R., & R. A. STOCKEY.  1986.  Morphology and development of pistillate inflorescences in extant and fossil Cercidiphyllaceae.  Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 73: 382-393.

25.    FRIIS, E. M., P. R. CRANE, & K. R. PEDERSEN.  1986.  Floral evidence for Cretaceous chloranthoid angiosperms.  Nature, 320: 163-164.

26.    CRANE, P. R.  1987. Vegetational consequences of the angiosperm diversification.  In: E. M. Friis, W. G. Chaloner & P. R. Crane (eds)  The Origins of Angiosperms and their Biological Consequences, pp. 107-144. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

27.    CRANE, P. R., & C. R. HILL.  1987.  Cladistic and paleobotanical approaches to plant phylogeny.  In: H. Hoenigswald & L. F. Wiener (eds)  Biological Metaphor and Cladistic Classification, pp 139-154. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

28.    CRANE, P. R., & R. A. STOCKEY.  1987.  Betula leaves and reproductive structures from the Middle Eocene of British Columbia.  Canadian Journal of Botany, 65: 2490-2500.

29.    CRANE, P. R., & G. R. UPCHURCH.  1987.  Drewria potomacensis gen. et sp. nov., an early cretaceous member of the Gnetales from the Potomac Group of Virginia.  American Journal of Botany, 74: 1722-1736.

30.    FRIIS, E. M., W. G. CHALONER, & P. R. CRANE.  1987.  Introduction to angiosperms. In: E. M. Friis, W. G. Chaloner & P. R. Crane (eds)  The Origins of Angiosperms and their Biological Consequences, pp. 1-15. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

31.    MANCHESTER, S. R., & P. R. CRANE.  1987.  A new genus of Betulaceae from the Oligocene of western North America.  Botanical Gazette, 148: 263-273.

32.    BLACKMORE, S., & P. R. CRANE.  1988.  Systematic implications of pollen and spore ontogeny.  In: C. J. Humphries (ed.) Ontogeny and Systematics, pp. 84-115. New York: Columbia University Press.

33.    CRANE, P. R.  1988.  Abelia-like fruits from the early Palaeocene of north-west Scotland.  Tertiary Research, 9: 21-30.

34.    CRANE, P. R.  1988.  Major clades and relationships in the 'higher' gymnosperms.  In: C. B. Beck (ed.) Origin and Evolution of Gymnosperms, pp. 218-272. New York: Columbia University Press.

35.    CRANE, P. R., S. R. MANCHESTER, & D. L. DILCHER.  1988.  Morphology and phylogenetic significance of the angiosperm Platanites hebridicus Forbes from the Palaeocene of Scotland.  Palaeontology, 31: 503-517.

36.    FRIIS, E. M., P. R. CRANE, & K. R. PEDERSEN.  1988.  The reproductive structures of Cretaceous Platanaceae.  Biologiske Skrifter, 31: 1-55.

37.    LIDGARD, S. H., & P. R. CRANE.  1988.  Quantitative analyses of the early angiosperm radiation.  Nature, 331: 344-346.

38.    CRANE, P. R.  1989.  Paleobotanical evidence on the early radiation of non-magnoliid dicotyledons.  Plant Systematics and Evolution, 162: 165-191.

39.    CRANE, P. R.  1989.  Patterns of evolution and extinction in vascular plants.  In: K. C. Allen & D. E. G. Briggs (eds)  Evolution and the Fossil Record, pp. 154-187. London: Belhaven Press.

40.    CRANE, P. R.  1989.  Early fossil history and evolution of the Betulaceae.  In: P. R. Crane & S. Blackmore (eds) Evolution, Systematics and Fossil History of the Hamamelidae, pp. 87-116. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

41.    CRANE, P. R., E. M. FRIIS, & K. R. PEDERSEN.  1989.  Reproductive structure and function in Cretaceous Chloranthaceae.  Plant Systematics and Evolution, 165: 211-226.

42.    CRANE, P. R., & S. H. LIDGARD.  1989.  Angiosperm diversification and paleolatitudinal gradients in Cretaceous floristic diversity.  Science, 246: 675-678. 

43.    DRINNAN, A. N., & P. R. CRANE.  1989.  Cretaceous paleobotany and its bearing on the biogeography of austral angiosperms.  In: T. N. Taylor & E. L. Taylor (eds)  Antarctic Paleobiology and its Role in the Reconstruction of Gondwana, pp. 192-219. New York: Springer-Verlag.

44.    FRIIS, E. M., & CRANE, P. R.  1989.  Reproductive structures of Cretaceous Hamamelidae.  In: P. R. Crane & S. Blackmore (eds)  Evolution, Systematics and Fossil History of the Hamamelidae, pp. 155-174. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

45.    HUFFORD, L., & P. R. CRANE.  1989.  A preliminary phylogenetic analysis of "lower" Hamamelidae.  In: P. R. Crane & S. Blackmore (eds)  Evolution, Systematics and Fossil History of the Hamamelidae, pp. 175-192. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

46.    PEDERSEN, K. R., P. R. CRANE, & E. M. FRIIS.  1989.  The morphology and phylogenetic significance of Vardekloeftia Harris (Bennettitales).  Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 59: 7-24.

47.    PEDERSEN, K. R., P. R. CRANE, & E. M. FRIIS.  1989.  Pollen organs and seeds with in situ Eucommiidites pollen.  Grana, 28: 279-294.

48.    LIDGARD, S. H., & CRANE, P. R.  1990.  Angiosperm diversification and Cretaceous floristic trends:  a comparison of palynofloras and leaf macrofloras.  Paleobiology, 16: 77-93.

49.    CRANE, P. R., S. R. MANCHESTER, & D. L. DILCHER.  1990.  Fossil leaves and well-preserved reproductive structures from the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene) near Almont, North Dakota, U.S.A.  Fieldiana: Geology, 20: 1-63.

50.    DRINNAN, A. N., P. R. CRANE, E. M. FRIIS, & K. R. PEDERSEN.  1990.  Lauraceous flowers from the Potomac Group (mid-Cretaceous) of eastern North America.  Botanical Gazette, 151: 370-384.

51.    DRINNAN, A. N., J. M. SCHRAMKE, & P. R. CRANE.  1990.  Stephanospermum konopeonus (Langford) comb. nov.: a medullosan ovule from the Middle Pennsylvanian Mazon Creek flora of northeastern Illinois, U.S.A.  Botanical Gazette, 151: 385-401.

52.    CRANE, P. R.  1990.  The phylogenetic context of microsporogenesis.  In: S. Blackmore & R. B. Knox (eds) Microspores: Evolution and Ontogeny, pp. 11-41. London: Academic Press.

53.    CRANE, P. R., & S. H. LIDGARD.  1990.  Angiosperm radiation and patterns of Cretaceous palynological diversity.  In: P. D. Taylor & G. P. Larwood (eds)  Major Evolutionary Radiations, pp. 377-407. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

54.    CRANE, P. R., & R. GOLDRING.  1991.  The Woolwich and Reading Formation (late Palaeocene to early Eocene) at Cold Ash and Pincent's Kiln (Berk.) in the western London Basin.  Tertiary Research, 12: 147-158.

55.    DRINNAN, A. N., P. R. CRANE, E. M. FRIIS, & K. R. PEDERSEN.  1991.  Angiosperm flowers and tricolpate pollen of buxaceous affinity from the Potomac Group (mid-Cretaceous) of eastern North America.  American Journal of Botany, 78: 153-176.

56.    KENRICK, P., W. REMY, & P. R. CRANE.  1991.  The structure of water-conducting cells in the enigmatic early land plants Stockmansella langii Fairon-Demaret, Huvenia sp. Haas and Remy, and Sciadophyton sp. (Steinmann) Remy.  Argumenta Palaeobotanica, 8: 179-191.

57.    PEDERSEN, K. R., P. R. CRANE, A. N. DRINNAN, & E. M. FRIIS.  1991.  Fruits from the mid-Cretaceous of North America with pollen grains of the Clavatipollenites type.  Grana, 30: 577-590.

58.    CRANE, P. R., S. R. MANCHESTER, & D. L. DILCHER.  1991.  Reproductive and vegetative structure of Nordenskioldia (Trochodendraceae) a vesselless dicotyledon from the Tertiary of the Northern Hemisphere.  American Journal of Botany, 78: 1311-1334.

59.    KENRICK, P., & P. R. CRANE.  1991.  Water-conducting cells of early fossil land plants: Implications for the early evolution of tracheophytes.  Botanical Gazette, 152: 335-356.

60.    FRIIS, E. M., P. R. CRANE, & K. R. PEDERSEN.  1991.  Stamen diversity and in situ pollen of Cretaceous angiosperms.  In: S. Blackmore and S. H. Barnes (eds)  Pollen and Spores: Patterns of Diversification, pp. 197-224. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

61.    MANCHESTER, S. R., P. R. CRANE, & D. L. DILCHER.  1991.  Nordenskioldia and Trochodendron (Trochodendraceae) from the Miocene of northwestern North America.  Botanical Gazette, 152: 357-368.

62.    OSBORN, J. M., T. N. TAYLOR, & P. R. CRANE.  1991.  The ultrastructure of Sahnia pollen (Pentoxylales).  American Journal of Botany, 78: 1560-1569.

63.    HERENDEEN, P. S., & P. R. CRANE.  1992.  Early caesalpinioid fruits from the Palaeogene of southern England.  In: P. S. Herendeen and D. L. Dilcher (eds)  Advances in Legume Systematics IV: Fossil Leguminosae, pp. 57-68. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

64.    FRIIS, E. M., K. R. PEDERSEN, & P. R. CRANE.  1992.  Esgueria gen. nov., fossil flowers with combretaceous features from the Late Cretaceous of Portugal.  Biologiske Skrifter, 41: 1-45.

65.    CRANE, P. R., K. R. PEDERSEN, E. M. FRIIS, & A. N. DRINNAN.  1993.  Early Cretaceous (Early-Middle Albian) inflorescences associated with Sapindopsis- leaves from the Potomac Group of eastern North America.  Systematic Botany, 18: 328-344.

66.    PEDERSEN, K. R., E. M. FRIIS, & P. R. CRANE.  1993.  Pollen organs and seeds with Decussosporites Brenner from the Lower Cretaceous Potomac Group of eastern U.S.A.  Grana, 32: 273-289.

67.    PEDERSEN, K. R., E. M. FRIIS, P. R. CRANE, & A. N. DRINNAN.  1994.  Reproductive structures of an extinct platanoid from the Early Cretaceous (latest Albian) of eastern North America.  Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 80: 291-303.

68.    DRINNAN, A. N., & P. R. CRANE.  1994.  A synopsis of medullosan pollen and pollen organs from the Middle Pennsylvanian Mazon Creek flora of northeastern Illinois, U.S.A.  Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 80: 235-257.

69.    PEDERSEN, K. R., E. M. FRIIS, & P. R. CRANE.  1994.  Ultrastructure of pollen from Cretaceous angiosperm reproductive structures.  In: M. H. Kurmann and J. A. Doyle (eds) Ultrastructure of fossil spores and pollen:  Its bearing on relationships among fossil and living groups, pp. 139-159.  Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

70.    UPCHURCH, G. R., P. R. CRANE, & A. N. DRINNAN.  1994.  The megaflora from the Quantico locality (Upper Albian), Lower Cretaceous Potomac Group of Virginia.  Virginia Museum of Natural History, Memoir 4: 1-57.

71.    FRIIS, E. M., R. PEDERSEN, & P. R. CRANE.  1994.  Angiosperm floral structures from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal.  Plant Systematics and Evolution, Supplement 8: 31-49.

72.    CRANE, P. R., E. M. FRIIS, & K. R. PEDERSEN.  1994.  Paleobotanical evidence on the early radiation of magnoliid angiosperms.  Plant Systematics and Evolution, Supplement 8: 51-72.

73.    DRINNAN, A. N., P. R. CRANE, & S. HOOT.  1994.  Patterns of floral evolution in the early diversification of non-magnoliid dicotyledons.  Plant Systematics and Evolution, Supplement 8: 93-122.

74.    FRIIS, E. M., H. ECKLUND, K. R. PEDERSEN, & P. R. CRANE.  1994.  Virginianthus calycanthoides gen. et sp. nov., a calycanthaceous flower from the Potomac Group (Early Cretaceous) of Eastern North America.  International Journal of Plant Sciences, 155: 772-785.

75.    HERENDEEN, P. S., P. R. CRANE, & A. N. DRINNAN.  1995.  Fagaceous flowers, fruits and cupules from the Campanian (Late Cretaceous) of central Georgia, U.S.A.  International Journal of Plant Sciences, 156: 93-116.

76.    CRANE, P. R., E. M. FRIIS, & K. R. PEDERSEN.  1995.  The origin and early diversification of angiosperms. Nature, 374: 27-33.  Also reprinted in Gee, H. (ed) 2000.  Shaking the tree.  University of Chicago Press, pp. 233-250.

77.    FRIIS, E. M., K. R. PEDERSEN, & P. R. CRANE.  1995.  Appomattoxia ancistrophora gen. et sp. nov., a new Early Cretaceous plant with similarities to Circaeaster and extant Magnoliidae.  American Journal of Botany, 82: 933-943.

78.    HOOT, S., A. CULHAM, & P. R. CRANE.  1995.  The utility of atpB gene chloroplast DNA sequences in resolving phylogenetic relationships in the Lardizabalaceae, including comparisons with rbcL and 18S ribosomal DNA sequences.  Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 82: 194-207.

79.    HERENDEEN, P. S., & P. R. CRANE.  1995.  The fossil history of the monocotyledons.  In: P. J. Rudall, P. J. Cribb, D. F. Cutler & C. J. Humphries (eds)  Monocotyledons:  Systematics and Evolution, pp. 1-21.  Kew: Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew.

80.    HOOT, S., & P. R. CRANE.  1995.  Inter-familial relationships in the Ranunculidae based on molecular systematics.  Plant Systematics and Evolution, Supplement, 9: 181-189.

81.    HOOT, S., A. CULHAM, & P. R. CRANE.  1995.  Phylogenetic relationships of the Lardizabalaceae and Sargentodoxaceae: Chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequence evidence.  Plant Systematics and Evolution, Supplement, 9: 195-199.

82.    CRANE, P. R., & P. S. HERENDEEN.  1996. Cretaceous floras containing angiosperm flowers and fruits from eastern North America.  Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 90: 319-337.

83.    KELLER, J. A., P. S. HERENDEEN, & P. R. CRANE.  1996.  Fossil flowers and fruits of the Actinidiaceae from the Campanian (late Cretaceous) of Georgia.  American Journal of Botany, 83: 528-541.

84.    CRANE, P. R.  1996.  The fossil history of the Gnetales.  International Journal of Plant Sciences, 157 (Supplement): 50-57.

85.    KONOPKA, A. S., P. S. HERENDEEN, G. L. S. MERRILL, & P. R. CRANE.  1997.  Sporophytes and gametophytes of Polytrichaceae from the Campanian (Late Cretaceous) of Georgia, U.S.A.  International Journal of Plant Sciences, 158: 489-499.

86.    MAGALLON, S., P. S. HERENDEEN, & P. R. CRANE.  1997.  Quadriplatanus georgianus gen. et. sp. nov.: staminate and pistillate platanaceous flowers from the Late Cretaceous (Coniacian - Santonian) of Georgia, U.S.A.  International Journal of Plant Sciences, 158: 373-394.

87.    KENRICK, P., & P. R. CRANE.  1997.  The origin and early diversification of plants on land.  Nature, 389: 33-39.  Also reprinted in H. Gee (ed) 2000.  Shaking the tree.  University of Chicago Press, pp. 271-232.

88.    CRANE, P. R., & P. KENRICK.  1997.  Diverted development of reproductive organs: a source of morphological innovation in land plants.  Plant Systematics and Evolution, 206: 161-174.

89.    FRIIS, E. M., P. R. CRANE, & K. R. PEDERSEN.  1997.  Fossil history of magnoliid angiosperms.  In: K. Iwatuski & P. H. Raven (eds)  Evolution and diversification of land plants, pp. 121-156.  New York: Springer Verlag,.

90.    CRANE, P. R., & P. KENRICK.  1997.  Problems in cladistic classification: higher level relationships in land plants.  Aliso, 15: 87-104.

91.    FRIIS, E. M., P. R. CRANE, & K. R. PEDERSEN.  1997.   Anacostia, a new basal angiosperm from the Early Cretaceous of North America and Portugal with monocolpate/trichotomocolpate pollen.  Grana, 36: 225-244.

92.    HOOT, S., J. W. KADEREIT, F. R. BLATTNER, K.B. JORK, A. SWARZBACH, & P. R. CRANE.  1997.  Data congruence and phylogeny of the Papaveraceae s.l. based on four data sets: atpB and rbcL sequences, trnK restriction sites, and morphological characters.  Systematic Botany, 22: 575-590.

93.    SIMS, H. J., P. S. HERENDEEN, & P. R. CRANE.  1998.   A new genus of fossil Fagaceae from the Campanian (Late Cretaceous) of central Georgia, U.S.A.  International Journal of Plant Sciences, 159: 391-404.

94.    KONOPKA, A. S., P. S. HERENDEEN, & P. R. CRANE.  1998.  Sporophytes and gametophytes of Dicranaceae from the Santonian (Late Cretaceous) of Georgia, U.S.A.  American Journal of Botany, 85: 714-723.

95.    QIU, Y-L., M. W. CHASE, S. B. HOOT, E. CONTI, P. R. CRANE, K. J. SYSTMA, & C. R. PARKS.  1998. Phylogenetics of the Hamamelidae and their allies: parsimony analyses of nucleotide sequences of the plastid gene rbcL.  International Journal of Plant Sciences, 159: 891-905.

96.    BATEMAN, R. M., P. R. CRANE, W. A. DIMICHELE, P. KENRICK, N. P. ROWE, T. SPECK, & W. E. STEIN.  1998.  Early evolution of land plants: Phylogeny, physiology and ecology of the primary terrestrial radiation.  Annual Reviews of Ecology and Systematics, 29: 263-292.

97.    CRANE , P. R.  1998.  The phylogenetic position and fossil history of the Magnoliaceae. In: D. Hunt (ed.) Magnolias and their allies, pp. 21-36. Milborne Port, David Hunt.

98.    HOOT, S. B., S. MAGALLÓN-PUEBLA, & P. R. CRANE.  1999.  Phylogeny of basal eudicots based on three molecular data sets: atpB, rbcL and 18S nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.  Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 86: 1-32.

99.    MANCHESTER, S. R., P. R. CRANE, & L. B. GOLOVNEVA.  1999.  An extinct genus with affinities to extant Davidia and Camptotheca (Cornales) from the Paleocene of North America and eastern Asia.  International Journal of Plant Sciences, 160: 188-207.

100.    SIMS, H. J., P. S. HERENDEEN, R. LUPIA, R. A. CHRISTOPHER, & P. R. CRANE.  1999.  Fossil flowers with Normapolles pollen from the Late Cretaceous of southeastern North America.  Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 106: 131-157.

101.    MAGALLÓN-PUEBLA, S., P. R. CRANE, & P. S. HERENDEEN.  1999.  Phylogenetic patterns, diversity and diversification of eudicots.  Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 86: 297-372.

102.    LUPIA, R., S. LIDGARD, & P. R. CRANE.  1999.  Comparing palynological diversity and abundance: implications for biotic replacement during the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation.  Paleobiology, 25: 305-340.

103.    HERENDEEN, P. S., S. MAGALLÓN-PUEBLA, R. LUPIA, P. R. CRANE, & J. KOBYLINSKYA.  1999.  A preliminary conspectus of the Allon flora from the Late Cretaceous (late Santonian) of central Georgia, U.S.A.  Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 86: 407-471.

104.    CRANE, P. R., & P. S. HERENDEEN.  1999.  The origin of modern terrestrial ecosystems: Introduction.  Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 86: 227-229.

105.    FRIIS, E. M., K. R. PEDERSEN, & P. R. CRANE.  1999.  Early angiosperm diversification: the diversity of pollen associated with angiosperm reproductive structures in Early Cretaceous floras from Portugal.  Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 86: 259-296.

106.    TAKAHASHI, M., P. R. CRANE, & H. ANDO.  1999.  Esgueiria futabensis sp. nov.; a new angiosperm flower from the Upper Cretaceous (lower Coniacian) of northeastern Honshu, Japan.  Paleontological Research 3: 81-87.

107.    TAKAHASHI, M., P. R. CRANE, & H. ANDO.  1999.  Fossil flowers and associated fossils from the Kamikitaba locality (Ashizawa Formation, lower Coniacian, Upper Cretaceous) of Northeast Japan.  Journal of Plant Research, 112: 187-206.

108.    CRANE, P. R.  1999.  Morphological patterns in plants through time.  In:  D. A. Springer & J. Scotchmoor (eds)  Evolution: Investigating the Evidence, pp. 171-185.  Paleontological Society Papers.

109.    BLACKMORE, S., & P. R. CRANE.  1999. The evolution of apertures in the spores and pollen grains of embryophytes.  In: S. J. Owens & P. J. Rudall (eds).  Reproductive Biology, pp. 159-182. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

110.    LUPIA, R., P. R. CRANE, & S. LIDGARD.  2000.  Angiosperm diversification and Cretaceous environmental change.  In:  S. J. Culver & R. F. Rawson (eds).  Biotic Response to Global Change: The Last 145 Million Years, pp. 307-222. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

111.    ERIKSSON, O., E. M. FRIIS, K. R. PEDERSEN, & P. R. CRANE.  2000.  Seed size and dispersal systems of Early Cretaceous angiosperms from Famalicão, Portugal.  International Journal of Plant Sciences, 161: 319-329.

112.    FRIIS, E. M., K. R. PEDERSEN, & P. R. CRANE.  2000.  Reproductive structure and organisation of basal angiosperms from the Early Cretaceous (Barremian or Aptian) of western Portugal.  International Journal of Plant Sciences, 161: S169-S182.

113.    FRIIS, E. M., K. R. PEDERSEN, & P. R. CRANE.  2000.  Fossil floral structures with monocolpate and reticulate-acolumellate pollen from Portugal: Evidence of basal monocots in the Early Cretaceous.  Grana, 39: 226-239.

114.    LUPIA, R., H. SCHNEIDER, G. M. MOESER, K. M. PRYER, & P. R. CRANE.  2000.  Marsileaceae sporocarps and spores from the Late Cretaceous of Georgia, U.S.A.  International Journal of Plant Sciences, 161: 975-988.

115.    FRIIS, E. M., K. R. PEDERSEN, & P. R. CRANE.  2001.  Fossil evidence of waterlilies (Nymphaeales) in the Early Cretaceous.  Nature, 410: 357-360.

116.    TAKAHASHI, M., P. R. CRANE, & H. ANDO.  2001.  Fossil megaspores of Marsileales and Selaginellales from the Santonian (Upper Cretaceous) of the Tamagawa Formation (Kuji Group) in Northeast Japan.  International Journal of Plant Sciences, 162: 431-439.

117.    MAGALLÓN, S., P. S. HERENDEEN, & P. R. CRANE.  2001.  Androdecidua endressii: gen. et sp. nov. from the Late Cretaceous of Georgia (United States): Further floral diversity in Hamamelidoideae (Hamamelidaceae).  International Journal of Plant Sciences, 162: 963-983.

118.    FRIIS, E. M., K. R. PEDERSEN, & P. R. CRANE.  2001.  Angiosperm origin and radiation.  In: D.E.G. Briggs & P.R. Crowther (eds) Palaeobiology II, pp. 97-102. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

119.    TAKAHASHI, M., P. S. HERENDEEN, & P. R. CRANE.  2001.  Lauraceous fossil flower from the Kamikitaba locality (Lower Coniacian; Upper Cretaceous) in northeast Japan.  Journal of Plant Research, 114: 429-434.

120.    TAKAHASHI, M., P. R. CRANE, & S. R. MANCHESTER.  2002.  Hironoia fusiformis gen. et ep. nov.; a cornalean fruit from the Kamikitaba locality (Upper Cretaceous, Lower Coniacian) in northeastern Japan. Journal of Plant Research, 115: 463-473. 

121.    SOLTIS, P. S., D. E. SOLTIS, V. SAVOLAINEN, P. R. CRANE, & T. G. BARRACLOUGH.  2002.  Rate heterogeneity among lineages of tracheophytes: integration of molecular and fossil data and evidence for molecular living fossils.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99: 4430-4435.

122.    DICKINSON, H. G., S. J. HISCOCK, & P. R. CRANE.  2003.  Introduction: Mechanisms regulating gene flow in flowering plants.  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 358: 989-990.

123.    BANKS, H., B. B. KLITGAARD, G. P. LEWIS, P. R. CRANE, & A. BRUNEAU.  2003.  Pollen and the systematics of tribes Caesalpinieae and Cassieae (Caesalpinioideae: Leguminosae).  In:  B.B. Klitgaard and A. Bruneau (eds).  Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 10, Higher Level Systematics, pp 95-122.  Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

124.    CRANE, P. R.  2004.  Documenting plant diversity: Unfinished business.  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 359: 735-737.

125.    SOLTIS, P. S., D. E. SOLTIS, M. W. CHASE, P. K. ENDRESS, & P. R. CRANE.  2004.  The Diversification of Flowering Plants.  In:  J. Cracraft & M. J. Donoghue (eds).  Assembling the Tree of Life, pp. 154-167. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

126.    FRIIS, E. M., K. R. PEDERSEN, & P. R. CRANE.  2004.  Araceae from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal: evidence on the emergence of monocotyledons.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101: 16565-16570

127.    CRANE, P. R., P. HERENDEEN, & E. M. FRIIS.  2004.  Fossils and plant phylogeny.  American Journal of Botany, 91: 1683-1699.

128.    MANCHESTER, R, B. P. PIGG, & P. R. CRANE.  2004.  Palaeocarpinus dakotensis sp.n. (Betulaceae: Coryloideae) and associated staminate catkins, pollen, and leaves from the Paleocene of North Dakota.  International Journal of Plant Sciences, 165: 1135-1148.

129.    BALMFORD, A., L. BENNUN, B. TEN BRINK, D. COOPER, I. CÔTÉ, P. R. CRANE, A. DOBSON, N. DUDLEY, I. DUTTON, R. E. GREEN, R. D. GREGORY, J. HARRISON, E. T. KENNEDY, C. KREMEN, N. LEADER-WILLIAMS, T. LOVEJOY, G. MACE, R. MAY, P. MAYAUX, P. MORLING, J. PHILLIPS, K. REDFORD, T. H. RICKETTS, J. P. RODRIGUEZ, M. SANJAYAN, P. SCHEI, A. VAN JAARSVELD, & B. A. WALTHER.  2005.  The Convention on Biological Diversity's 2010 Target.  Science, 307: 212-213.

130. FRIIS, E. M., K. R. PEDERSEN, & P. R. CRANE.  2005.  When Earth started blooming:  Insights from the fossil record.  Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 8: 1-8. 

131.    GREEN, R. E., A. P. BALMFORD, P. R. CRANE, G. M. MACE, J. D. REYNOLDS, & R. K. TURNER.  2005.  A framework for improved monitoring of biodiversity: Responses to the World Summit on Sustainable Development.  Conservation Biology, 19: 56-65.

132.    NIC LUGHADHA, E., J. BAILLIE, W. BARTHLOTT, N. A. BRUMMITT, M. R. CHEEK, A. FARJON, R. GOVAERTS, K. A. HARDWICK, C. HILTON-TAYLOR, T. R. MEAGHER, J. MOAT, J. MUTKE, A. J. PATON, L. J. PLEASANTS, V. SAVOLAINEN, G. E. SCHATZ, P. SMITH, I. TURNER, P. WYSE-JACKSON, & P. R. CRANE.  2005.  Measuring the fate of plant diversity: towards a foundation for future monitoring and opportunities for urgent action.  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B. 360: 359-372.

133.     BALMFORD, A., P. R. CRANE, A. DOBSON, R. E. GREEN, & G. M. MACE.  2005.  The 2010 challenge: data availability, information needs and extraterrestrial insights.  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, 360: 221-228.

134.    FOREST, F., V. SAVOLAINEN, M. W. CHASE, R. LUPIA, A. BRUNEAU, & P. R. CRANE.  2005.  Teasing apart molecular-versus fossil-based error estimates when dating phylogenetic trees:  a case study in the birch family (Betulaceae).  Systematic Botany, 30: 118-133.

135.  CLAXTON, F., H. BANKS, B. B. KLITGAARD, & P. R. CRANE.  2005.  Pollen morphology of families Quillajaceae and Surianaceae (Fabales).  Review of Palaeobotany & Palynology, 133: 221-233.

136.  RYDIN, C., K. R. PEDERSEN, P. R. CRANE, & E. M. FRIIS.  2006.  Former diversity of Ephedra (Gnetales): Evidence from Early Cretaceous seeds from Portugal and North America.  Annals of Botany, 98: 123-140.

137.    FRIIS, E. M., K. R. PEDERSEN, & P. R. CRANE.  2006.  Cretaceous angiosperm flowers: Innovation and evolution in plant reproduction.  Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 232: 251-293.

138.    CRANE, P. R., & L. J. PLEASANTS.  2006.  Taxonomy and the future of plant diversity science.  In:  E. Leadley and S. Jury (eds):  Taxonomy and Plant Conservation, pp 3-17.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

139.  TAKAHASHI, M., E. M. FRIIS, & P. R. CRANE.  2007. Fossil seeds of Nymphaeales from the Tamayama Formation (Futaba Group, Early Santonian), Upper Cretaceous of Northwest Japan.  International Journal of Plant Sciences 168: 341-350.

140. FOREST, F., I. NÄNNI, M. W. CHASE, P. R. CRANE & J. A. HAWKINS. 2007. Diversification of a large genus in a continental biodiversity hotspot: Temporal and spatial origin of Muraltia (Polygalaceae) in the Cape of South Africa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 43: 60-74.

141.  FOREST, F., M. W. CHASE, C. PERSSON, P. R. CRANE, & J. A. HAWKINS.  2007. The role of biotic and abiotic factors in the evolution of ant dispersal in the milkwort family (Polygalaceae). Evolution, 61: 1675-1694.

142.    BANKS, H., P. STAFFORD, & P. R. CRANE. 2007.  Another look at the pollen apertures of Nelumbo.  Grana, 46: 157-163.

143.    BALTHAZAR, M. VON, K. R. PEDERSEN, P. R. CRANE, & E. M. FRIIS.  2007.  Potomacanthus lobatus gen. et sp. nov., a new flower of probable Lauraceae from the Early Cretaceous (Early to Middle Albian) of eastern North America.  American Journal of Botany, 94: 2041-2053.

144. PEDERSEN, K. R., M. VON BALTHAZAR, P. R. CRANE & E. M. FRIIS.  2007.  Early Cretaceous floral structures and in situ tricolpate-striate pollen: New early eudicots from Portugal. Grana, 46: 176-196.

145. FRIIS, E. M., P. R. CRANE, K. R. PEDERSEN, S. BENGSTON, P. C. J. DONOGHUE, M. STAMPONI. 2007.  Phase-contrast X-ray microtomography links Cretaceous seeds with Gnetales and Bennettitales.  Nature, 450: 549-552.

146.    BANKS, H., B. B. KLITGAARD, F. CLAXTON, F. FOREST & P. R. CRANE.  2008. Pollen morphology of the family Polygalaceae.  Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 156: 253-289.

PHOTO CAPTIONS

1.  Change in the composition of fossil leaf floras through the Cretaceous showing the impact of angiosperm diversification.

2. Change in the composition of fossil pollen-spore floras through the Cretaceous showing the different impact of angiosperm diversification at different paleolatitudes and the parallel diversification of ephedroid pollen similar to that of extant Gnetales.

3. Fossil flowers and cupules of Protofagacea from the Late Cretaceous (Santonian) of Allon, Georgia, U.S.A.: an early member of the angiosperm family that today includes beeches, chestnuts and oaks.

4.  Fossil flowers, inflorescences and fruits from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal that are remarkably similar to those of extant Hedyosmum: a member of the angiosperm family Chloranthaceae.  Chloranthaceae are among the earliest lineages to diverge from the main line of angiosperm evolution according to phylogenetic analyses of extant taxa based on molecular data.

5.  Phase-contrast X-ray microtomography image of a fossil seed from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal, which resembles those of extant Gnetales a possible close relative of flowering plants.

6. Drewria potomacensis from the Early Cretaceous of Drewry's Bluff, Virginia, U.S.A. an early member of the Gnetales and possible close relative of flowering plants.

7. Millennium Seed Bank at Wakehurst Place in West Sussex, U.K.: the country garden of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

8. The Palm House at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew in west London: one of more than 40 important buildings and other structures on the Kew World Heritage Site.



Community service:
 

Commitment to research the situation: