Location:Home>Scientist>Faculty and Staff
Cai Huajian
Tel:  86-10-64877240
Mailing Address:  16 Lincui Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China
Email:  caihj@psych.ac.cn,Huajian.cai@gmail.com
Website:  http://csclab.psych.ac.cn
Dr. Cai received his B.A. (1993), M.A. (1996), and Ph. D. (2002) in psychology from East China Normal University in Shanghai. He did post-doc at University of Washington (2003-2005) in Dr. Anthony Greenwald’s lab and University of Oklahoma. 
Research Interests:

Self-Positivity; Implicit Social Cognition; Social Neuroscience

Community service:
Selected Publications:

Gu, R., Yang, J., Shi, Y., Luo, Y., & Cai, H. *(2016). Be strong enough to say NO: Familial self-affirmation strengths rejections to unfairness. Manuscript under review.
Cai, H., Luo, Y.L.L. (2016). Genetic Basis of Implicit Self-evaluation: A Twin Study. Manuscript under review.
Cai, H.*, Zou, X., Feng, Y., & Liu, Y. (2016). Increasing need for uniqueness in China: Evidence and implications for job design. Organization Behavior and Human Decision Process. Under review.
Shi, Y., Shi, J., Luo, Y. L.L., Cai, H.* (2016). Understanding Exclusionary Reactions toward a Foreign Culture: The Influence of Intrusive Cultural Mixing on Implicit Intergroup Bias. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology. in press.

Cai, H., Wu, L., Shi., Y., Gu, R., & Sedikides, C. (2016). Self-Enhancement among Westerners and Easterners: A Cultural Neuroscience Approach. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, in press.
Luo, L.L.Y., Liu, Y., Cai, H.*, Wildschut, T., & Sedikides, C. (2016). Nostalgia and Self-Enhancement: Phenotypic and Genetic Approaches. Social Psychological and Personality Science, in press
Shi, Y., Sedikides, C., Cai, H.*, Liu, Y., & Yang, Z. (2016). Dis-owning the self: The cultural value of modesty can attenuate self-positivity. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. doi: 10.1080/17470218.2015.1099711
Shi Y, Cai, H.*, Shen YA and Yang J (2016) How to Set Focal Categories for Brief Implicit Association Test? “Good” Is Good, “Bad” Is Not So Good. Frontiers in Psychology. 7:38.doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00038
Cai, H., Luo, L.L.Y., Shi, Y., Liu, Y., Yang, Z. (2016). Male = Science, Female = Humanities: Both Implicit and Explicit Gender-Science Stereotypes Are Heritable. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7(5): 412-419.doi: 10.1177/1948550615627367

Gries, P., Sanders, M.A., Stroup, D.R., Cai, H. (2015). Hollywood in China: How American Popular Culture Shapes Chinese Views of the “Beautiful Imperialist” – An Experimental Analysis. The China Quartely, doi:10.1017/S0305741015000831
Luo,Y., Feng C., Wu, T., Broster, L.S., Cai, H., Gu, R., Luo, Y. (2015). Social Comparison Manifests in Event-related Potentials. Scientific Reports 07/2015; 5:12127. DOI:10.1038/srep12127
Wu,L. Gu, R., Cai, H.*, Zhang, J.(2015). Electrophysiological evidence for executive control and efficient categorization involved in implicit self-evaluation. Social neuroscience, 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/17470919.2015.1044673
Cai, H., Shi, Y., Fang, X., Luo, Y.L.L. (2015). Narcissism predicts impulsive buying: phenotypic and genetic evidence. Frontiers in Psychology. 6:881.doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00881
Miller, J.D., Maples, J. L., Buffardi,L.,Cai, H., Gentile, B., Kisbu-Sakarya,Y., Kwan,V., Lopilato, A., Pendry,L.,F. Sedikides,C., Siedor, L., Campbell, W., K. (2015). Narcissism and United States' Culture: The View From Home and Around the World. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109(6):1068-89. doi: 10.1037/a0039543
Sedikides, C., Gaertner, L., & Cai, H. (2015). On the Panculturality of Self-enhancement and Self-protection Motivation: The Case for the Universality of Self-esteem. In A.J. Elliot (Ed.), Advances in Motivation Science (pp.185–241).ISBN: 9780128022702


Luo, L., Shi, Y., Feng, Y.,Yue, X., & Cai,H. (2013). The heritability of self-esteem: Evidences from twin studies.  Advances of Psychological Science, in press.
Feng, Y., Cai, H.,& Shi, Y.(2013). Cultural Products Research: A Special Perspective for Cultural Psychology. Advances of Psychological Science, 21(2),1-10. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.001
Cai, H., Zhao, N., & Lu, W. (2011). Subjective Well-being in China: A Research Review. Handbook of Chinese Social Science,214-221.  ISBN:978-7-5097-2442-2
Cai, H., Zhao, N., Yue, X., & Feng, Y.(2011). Chinese self-esteem: Characteristics, correlates and causes. 2010-2011 Reports on Advances in Psychology, Chinese Science and Technology Press,56-68.
Cai, H., Feng, Y. & Yue, X.(2011)。Pan-cultural Need for Self-esteem: Evidence from China. Advances of Psychological Science, 2011, 19,(1): 1–8。
Cai, H., Huang, X., Song, H. (2008).  The relationship between sex-role and subjective well-being in China.  Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2008, 40(4),1-10.
Cai, H., Lin Y., Wu, Q., Yan, L., & Huang, X. (2008).  Examine the measurement invariance between paper-and-pencil and internet-administered tests in China. Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2008, 40(2), 228-239.
Cai, H., Wu, Q., & Deng, C. (2008). Differential reactions toward people with AIDS (PWA) in China. Acta Psychologica Sinica. 2008, 40(1), 54-63
Cai, H. (2006) Pancultural self-esteem: Evidence from China. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 38(6), 902-909.
Fu, Q., Wu, Q., & Cai, H. (2005). Examining implicit theory of creativity among Chinese adolescents. Chinese Journal of Applied Psychology, 11(3), 265-270.
Cai, H. (2003). Introducing implicit association test to Chinese psychologist. The Advances of Psychological Science, 11(03), 339-344.
Cai, H. (2003). The effect of implicit self-esteem and its relationship with explicit self- esteem. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 35(6), 796-801.
Cai, H. (2003). The stability of implicit self-esteem: The effect of success-failure manipulation. Psychological Science, 35(6), 461-464.
Cai, H. (2003). Explicit self-esteem, implicit self-esteem and depression. Chinese Mental Health Journal. 17(5), 331-336.
Cai, H. (2002). The primary revision of MBTI. Chinese Journal of Applied Psychology, 7(2), 33-37.
Cai, H. (2002). Using signal detection theory to study mental rotation. Psychological Science, 25(4), 479-481.
Cai, H., Yang, Z. & Fu, Q. (2002). The survey of undergraduates’ implicit theory on creativity. Psychological Science, 25(1), 641-645.
Cai, H. & Yang, Z. (2002). Using IAT to study the structure of gender self-concept. Acta Psychological Sinica, 34(2), 168-174.
Cai, H., Fu.,Q., Sang, B., & Xu, J. (2001). Survey (I) of public view of creativity — about the traits of the highly creative. Psychological Science, 24(1), 46-50.
Cai, H. & Fu, Q. (2002).  Survey (II) of public view of creativity— about the factors which affect the creativity. Psychological Science, 24(4), 432-435.
Cai, H., Zhou, Y., & Shi, Q. (2001). The implicit association test and its use in the study of gender stereotype. Social Psychology Research, 11(4), 6-11.
Cai, H. & Chen, Q. (2000). The development of mental rotation ability in relation to intelligence. Psychological Science, 23(3), 363-365.
Cai, H. & Yang, Z. (1998). A primary study on effects of the characteristics of 3-dimensional mental rotation tasks. Psychological Science. 21(2), 153-158.
Cai, H. (1996). A review of computerized adaptive test. Exploration of psychology, 16(3), 52-56.

Wu,L.,Cai,H., Gu,R., Luo,Y. L.L.,Zhang,J., Yang,J.,Shi,Y. & Ding,L.(2014).Neural manifestations of implicit self-esteem: An ERP study. Plos One. In press
Yang, J., Shi, J., Shi, Y., Luo, L.L.Yu, Cai. H.* (2014). The Brief Implicit Association Test is valid: Experimental evidence. Social Cognition, in press
Luo. L.L. Y, Cai, H.*, & Song, H. (2014). Liking for name predicts happiness: a genetic behavioral analysis. Personality and Individual Difference, in press
Marcinkowska, U.M., Kozlov, M.V., Cai, H., Contreras-Garduño, J.,  Dixson, B.J., Oana, G., A., Kaminski, G.,  Li,N., P., Lyons, M. T.,  Onyishi, I.E., Prasai, K., Pazhoohi, F., Prokop, P.,   Cardozo, S.R., Sydney, N., Yong, J., C,  Rantala, M., J.,  (2014). Cross-cultural variation in men's preference for sexual dimorphism in women's faces. Biology letters, 10(4): · 
Luo. L.L. Y, Cai, H.*, & Song, H. (2014). Intrapersonal and interpersonal characteristics of narcissism: A twin study. PLos One. 01/2014; 9(4):e93403. 
Luo. L.L. Y, Cai, H.*, Sedikides, C., Song, H. (2014). Distinguishing communal narcissism from agentic Narcissism: A behavior genetics analysis. Journal of Research in Personality,.49, 52-48
Cai, H.*, Yang, J, Luo L.L. Y. (2014). Development of implicit self-esteem in adolescents. Plos One. 01/2014; 9(2):e89988
Zell, E., Su, R., Li,H., Ho, M.R., Hong, H., Kumkale, T., Stauffer,S.D.,  Zecca, G., Cai,H., Roccas, S., Arce-Michel, J., Sousa, C., Diaz-Loving, R.,  Botero,M., M., Mannetti, L., Garcia, C., Carrera, P., Cabalero, A., Ikemi, M., Chan, D., Bernardo, A., Garcia, F., Brechan, I., Maio, G., Albarracín,D. (2014). Cultural Differences in Attitudes Toward Action and Inaction The Role of Dialecticism. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4(5):521-528.  DOI:10.1177/1948550612468774
Cai, H.*, Sedikides, C., & Jiang, L. (2013). Familial self as a potent source of affirmation: Evidence from China. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4(5) 529-537
Cai, H.*, Gries, H. P. (2013). National Narcissism: internal dimensions and international correlates. Psych Journal. 2,122-132. 
Luo, Y.Y. L, & Cai, H. (2013). Self in the Mirror of Behavioral Genetics: Reflections from Twin Studies on Self-esteem and Self-concept. In Handbook of Genetic Behavior. In press. 
Hepper, E.G., Sedikides, C., & Cai, H.* (2013). Self-Enhancement and Self-Protection Strategies in China: Cultural Expressions of a Fundamental Human Motive. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(1), 5-23.
Gries, P. G, Crowson, H.M., & Cai, H. (2012). God, guns, and… China? How ideology impacts American attitudes and policy preferences towards China. International Relations of the Asia-Pacific,12(1), 1-40.
Gartner, L., Sedikides, C., & Cai, H.* (2012). Wanting to Be Great and Better but not Average: On the Pancultural Desire for Self-Enhancing and Self-Improving Feedback. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 43(4), 521-526.
Kim, Y., Cai, H., Gilliland, M., Chiu, C., Xia, S., & Tam, K. (2012). Standing in the Glory or Shadow of the Past Self: Cultures Differ in How Much the Past Self Affects Current Subjective Well-Being. Emotion, 12(1),1111-1117. doi:10.1037/a0026968
Gaertner, L., Sedikides, C., Luke, M., O'Mara, E. I., Jonathan, J., Lydia E., Cai, H. and Wu, Q. (2012).  A motivational hierarchy within: primacy of the individual self, relational self, or collective self? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, (5): 997-1013.
Cai, H.*, Fang, X., Yang, Z., & Song, H.(2012). Implicit animosity: an initial validation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology .42(7),1651-1674.
Cai, H.*, Kwan, S.Y. V., & Sedikides, C. (2012). A  Sociocultural Approach to Narcissism: The Case of Modern China.  European Journal of Personality.  . 26 (5): 529–535.
Gries, P. H., Crowson, H. M., & Cai, H. (2011). When Knowledge Is a Double Edged Sword: Contact, Media Exposure, and American China Policy Preferences. Journal of Social Issues, 67(4), 787- 805.
Gries, P. H., Zhang, Q., Crowson, H.M. & Cai, H. (2011).  Patriotism, Nationalism, and China’s U.S. Policy: Structures and Consequences of Chinese National Identity.  China Quarterly. 205, 1-17.
Song, H. & Cai, H.*, Brown, J. D. Grimm, K. (2011). Differential Item Functioning of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in the U.S. and China: Measurement Bias Matters.  Asian Journal of Social Psychology.  14, 176-188.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-839X.2011.01347.x
Cai, H.*, Sedikedis, C., Gaertner, L., & Wang, C. Carvallo M., Xu,Y, Mara, E.,& Jackson, L.E. (2011). Tactical Self-Enhancement in China : Is Modesty at the Service of Self-Enhancement in East Asian Culture.  Social Psychological and Personality Science. 2(1),59-64.
Gries, P. H., Cai, H., & Crowson, H.M. (2010). The Spectre of Communism in US China Policy: Bipartisanship in the American Subconscious. The Chinese Journal of International Politics, 3, 2010, 397–413. doi:10.1093/cjip/poq014
Levinson,J.D., Cai, H.*, Young, D. (2010). Guilty by implicit racial bias: the guilty/not guilty Impicit Association Test. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 8, 187-206.
Gaertner, L., Sedikides, C., Cai, H. & Brown, J. D.. It’s Not WEIRD, It’s WRONG: When Researchers Overlook uNdelrying Genotypes They will not Detect Universal Processes  (Commentary on Henrich, Heine, & Norenzayan).(2010) Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 33,33-34 doi:10.1017/S0140525X10000105.
Cai, H., Deng, C., Zhou, L., Zhao, G. (2010). An Investigation of AIDS-related Knowledge and Reactions among  College Students in China. Acta Psychologica Sinica. 41(11), 518-527. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2010.00518.
Brown, J.D. & Cai, H. (2010). Self-Esteem and Trait Importance Moderate Cultural Differences in  Self-Evaluations.  Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 41(1),116-123. 
Kim,Y., Chiu, C-Y, Peng, S., Cai, H., Tov, W.(2010). Is Positive Self-Regard Grounded Only to People from Euro-American Cultures?: Interplay of Motivation and Culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.  41(1), 62-75.
Brown, J.D & Cai, H. (2009). Thinking and Feeling in the People’s Republic of China: Testing the Generality of the ‘Laws of Emotion’. International Journal of Psychology, 45(2),111-121.
Nosek, B. A., Smyth, F. L., Sriram, N., Lindner, N. M., Devos, T., Ayala, A., Bar-Anan, Y., Bergh, R., Cai, H., Gonsalkorale, K., Kesebir, S., Maliszewski, N., Neto, F., Olli, E., Park, J., Schnabel, K., Shiomura, K., Tulbure, B., Wiers, R. W., Somogyi, M., Akrami, N., Ekehammar, B., Vianello, M., Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (2009). National differences in gender-science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 10593-10597.
Cai*, H., Wu, Q., & Brown, J. D. (2009). Is Self-Esteem a Universal Need? Evidence from The People’s Republic of China.  Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 12, 104–120.
Brown, J.D, Cai, H., Oakes, M., & Deng, C. (2009). Cultural Similarities in Self-Esteem Functioning:  East is East and West is West, But Sometimes the Twain Do Meet. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40 (1), 140-157.
Before 2008
Oakes, M. Brown, J.D, & Cai, H. (2008). Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem: Measure for Measure. Social cognition,  26(6), 778-790.
Cai, H., Brown, J.D., Deng, C., & Oakes, M., (2007). Self-esteem and culture: Differences in cognitive self-evaluations or affective self-regard?  Asian Journal of  Social Psychology, 10,162-170.
Yamaguchi, S., Greenwald, A.G., Banaji, M.R., Murakami, F., Chen, D., Shiomura, K., Kobayashi, C., Cai, H., & Krendl, A. (2007).  Apparent universality of positive implicit self-esteem.  Psychological Science, 18(6), 6-8.
Cai, H., Sriram, N., Greenwald, A.G., & McFarland, S.G. (2004). The Implicit Association Test’s D measure can minimize a cognitive skill confound: Comment on McFarland and  Crouch. Social Cognition, 22(6), 673-684.