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C. M. Sharma, S. Sharma, R. M. Bajracharya, S. Gurung, I. Juttner, S. C. Kang, Q. G. Zhang and Q. Li
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Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the morphology, physical and chemical characteristics of three high-altitude lakes in the Gokyo Valley, Everest National Park, Nepal. The moraine-dammed glacial lakes were studied for three seasons to create baseline data. The second, third, and fourth lakes in the Gokyo Valley are deeper than previously assumed. The vertical profiles of temperature and dissolved oxygen indicated that the thermocline zone varied between 10 and 20 m below the surface during the post-monsoon season. Although most of the analyzed metal concentrations were below the level recommended by the WHO for safe drinking water, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) levels exceeded the limits in some of the samples. This has created great concern for human health. The probable route of these two pollutants is monsoon precipitation that carries industrial pollutants along its route. The sedimentation rates of Gokyo Lakes range from 0.069 to 0.089 cm per annum, which is within the limits of other high-altitude lakes. The present findings created a baseline database for some of the remote high-altitude lakes in Nepal that can be used for lake management and for assessing future changes in lake characteristics in the Himalayan region.
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Page number: 181-192
Issue: 1
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PubYear: 2012
Volume: 13
Publication name: Limnology
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the morphology, physical and chemical characteristics of three high-altitude lakes in the Gokyo Valley, Everest National Park, Nepal. The moraine-dammed glacial lakes were studied for three seasons to create baseline data. The second, third, and fourth lakes in the Gokyo Valley are deeper than previously assumed. The vertical profiles of temperature and dissolved oxygen indicated that the thermocline zone varied between 10 and 20 m below the surface during the post-monsoon season. Although most of the analyzed metal concentrations were below the level recommended by the WHO for safe drinking water, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) levels exceeded the limits in some of the samples. This has created great concern for human health. The probable route of these two pollutants is monsoon precipitation that carries industrial pollutants along its route. The sedimentation rates of Gokyo Lakes range from 0.069 to 0.089 cm per annum, which is within the limits of other high-altitude lakes. The present findings created a baseline database for some of the remote high-altitude lakes in Nepal that can be used for lake management and for assessing future changes in lake characteristics in the Himalayan region.
The full text link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2011.03.019