Location: Home > Scientists
  Principal Investigators
ZHAO, Yong
Cell Biology
+86-10-64807302  /  +86-10-64807313
State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Siences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, P.R.China
Group of Transplantation Biology      

August, 1982 - July, 1987: Norman Bethune University of Medical Sciences, Changchun, China. Doctor degree of Medicine, Major: Medicine
August, 1987 - July, 1990: Norman Bethune University of Medical Sciences. Master of science, Major: Biology
August, 1990 - July, 1993: Norman Bethune University of Medical Sciences. Ph. D., Major: Biology/Immunology

Research and Professional Experience:
August, 1993 - March, 1995: Postdoctoral researcher at Project Research Center, Mitsubishi Kasei Institute of Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan.
March, 1995 - May, 2000: Postdoctoral research associate at Bone Marrow Transplantation Section, Transplantation Biology Research Center, Surgical Service, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston.
May, 2000 - August, 2003: Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery, Department of Pharmocology and Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha.
August, 2003 - present: Professor, Transplantation Biology Research Division, State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Research Interests:
We are currently interested in understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms for immune tolerance and thymus development, exploring the possibility for clinical application of xenotransplantation, as well as establishing protocols to induce transplant immune tolerance.

Awards and Honors:

Professional Activities:

Research Grants:
Supported by grants from the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Natural Science Foundation of China

Selected Publications:
  1. Sun L, Sun C, Liang Z, Li H, Chen L, Luo H, Zhang H, Ding P, Sun X, Qin Z* and Zhao Y* FSP1+ fibroblast subpopulation is essential for the maintenance and regeneration of thymic medullary zone. Journal of Immunology 2014 (revision)
  2. Sun L, Zhang H, Luo H, Liang Z, Du J, Wu L, Zhang L, Lu J, and Zhao Y* Acute allograft rejection significantly impairs host thymic medullary epithelial cell homeostasis via IL-17. American Journal of Transplantation 2014 (revision)
  3. Wang Z, Zhou S, Sun C, Lei T, Peng J, Li W, Ding P, Lu J, and Zhao Y* IFN-γ inhibits non-opsonized phagocytosis of macrophages via an mTORC1-c/EBPβ pathway. Journal of Innate Immunology 2014 (revision).
  4. Zhu L, Yang T, Li L, Sun L, Hou Y, Hu X, Zhang L, Tian H, Zhao Q, Peng J, Zhang H, Wang R, Yang Z, Zhang L, and Zhao Y* TSC1 controls macrophage polarization to prevent inflammatory disorder. Nature Communications 2014 (accepted)
  5. Hou Y, Lin H, Zhu L, Liu Z, Hu F, Shi J, Yang T, Shi X, Guo H, Tan X, Zhang L, Wang Q*, Li Z*, and Zhao Y* IFN-γ inhibits TLR ligands-induced protease HTRA1 expression in rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Immunology 2014 (online).
  6. Deng X, Zhang F, Wang L, Rui W, Long F, Zhao Y*, Chen D, Ding W* Airborne fine particulate matter induces multiple cell death pathways in human lung epithelial cells. Apoptosis 2014 19(7):1099-112.
  7. Chen, H, Yang, T, Zhu, L., Zhao Y* Cellular Metabolism on T-Cell Development and Function. International Review of Immunology. 2014 (on line)
  8. Shen X, Du J, Guan W, and Zhao Y* The balance of intestinal Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and Th17 cells and its biological significance. Expert Review of Clinical Immunology 2014 10(3): 353-362.
  9. Xiao W, Meng G, Zhao Y, Chang Z, Li T, Sun C, Li Z, Zhao Y, Luo M, Zheng X* Human secreted protein SI-CLP aggravates the inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis and is a potential macrophage inflammatory regulator Arthritis & Rheumatism 2014 66(5): 1141-1152.
  10. Sun L, Li H, Luo H, and Zhao Y* Thymic epithelial cell development and its dysfunction in human diseases. BioMed Research International 2014: 206929
  11. Luo H, Wang C, Feng M, Zhao Y*. Microgravity inhibits resting T cell immunity in an exposure time-dependent manner. International Journal of Medical Sciences 2014 11(1): 87-96.
  12. Wang C, Luo H, Zhu L, Yang F, Chu Z, Tian H, Feng M, Shang P*, Zhao Y * Microgravity inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α expression in macrophage cells. Inflammation Research 2014 63(1): 91-98.
  13. Sun B, Hu X, Liu G, Ma B, Xu Y, Yang T, Shi J, Yang F, Li H, Zhang L*, and Zhao Y* Phosphatase Wip1 negatively regulates neutrophil antimicrobial immunity.  Journal of Immunology 2014 192(3): 1184-1195.
  14. Sun L, Li H, Luo H, Zhang L, Hu X, Yang T, Sun C, Chen H, Zhang L and Zhao Y*. Phosphatase Wip1 is essential for the maturation and homeostasis of medullary thymic epithelial cells in mice Journal of Immunology 2013 191(6): 3210-3220.
  15. Chen H, Zhang LJ, Zhang HB, Li L, Xiao Y, Sun LN, Li H, Corley D, Liu G, Yang ZZ*, and Zhao Y* TSC1/2 complex negatively regulates thymic CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg development in mice. FASEB J 2013 27(10): 3979-3990.
  16. Hou Y, Lin H, Duan K, Zhu L, Liu Z, Hu F, Shi J, Rao E, Yang T, Shi X, Yin Z, Zhu M, Zhang L, Godley F. B., Wang Q*, Li Z*, and Zhao Y* LPS increases the incidence of collagen-induced arthritis in mice through induction of protease HTRA1 expression  Arthritis & Rheumatism 2013  65(11): 2835-2846.
  17. Liu G, Hu X, Sun B, Shi J, Zhang L*, and Zhao Y.* Phosphatase Wip1 negatively regulates neutrophil development through p38 MAPK-STAT1. Blood 2013 121(3): 519-529. 
  18. Sun LN, Li HR, Luo HY, and Zhao Y.* Thymic epithelial cell development and differentiation: Cellular and molecular regulations. Protein Cell 2013 4(5): 342-355.
  19. Wu T,  Sun C, Chen Z, Zhen Y, Peng J, Qi Z., Yang X., and Zhao Y* Smad3-deficient CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells prevent allograft rejection via the nitric oxide pathway Journal of Immunology 2012 189(10): 4989-5000.
  20. Ge Q. and Zhao Y. Evolution of thymus organogenesis Dev Comp Immunol 2013 39(1-2): 85-90.
  21. Hu X, Liu G, Hou Y, Shi J, Zhu L, Jin D, Peng J, and Zhao Y*  Induction of recipient M2 macrophages by allogeneic donor regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells in mice Cell Mol Immunol 2012 9(6): 464-472.
  22. Sun C., Jiang Y., Sun L., Shang H.*, and Zhao Y.* The characteristics of Th1/Th2 cytokine receptors on monocytes in untreated patients of long term nonprogressor or chronic HIV infection. Current Molecule Medicine. 2012 12(8): 1028-1039.
  23. Wu, T., Zhang, L., Xu, K., Sun, C., Lei, T., Peng, J., Liu, G., Wang, R., Zhao Y*, Immunosuppressive drugs on inducing Ag-specific CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells during immune response in vivo. Transplant Immunology, 2012, 27(1): 30-38
  24. Huang, L., Wang, Z. B. Jiang, Z. Z. Hu, M. W. Lin, F., Zhang, Q. H., Luo, Y. B., Hou, Y., Zhao, Y., Fan, H. Y., Schatten, H. Specific disruption of Tsc1 in ovarian granulosa cells promotes ovulation and causes progressive accumulation of corpora lutea. PLoS One 2012, 8(1): e54052.
  25. Sun, Q. Y.Liu, X., Ma, B., Malik, A. B., Tang, H., Yang, T., Sun, B., Wang, G., Minshall, R. D., Li, Y., Zhao, Y., Ye, R. D., and  Xu, J.* Bidirectional regulation of neutrophil migration by mitogen-activated protein kinases Nature Immunology 2012, 13(5): 457-464.
  26. Y. Zhang L, Li L, Xiao Y, Rao E, Miao Z, Chen H, Sun L, Li H, Zhang H and Zhao Y* TSC1/2 pathway critically regulates peripheral naïve CD8+ T cell survival and homeostasis in mice PLoS One 2012, 7(2): e30592.
  27. Jin, D., Duan, K., Zhang, L., Peng, J., and Zhao, Y.* The effects of leflunomide on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells in mice receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Inflammation Research 2012, 61(1): 53-60.
  28. Zeng C, Shi X, Zhang B, Liu H, Zhang L, Ding W, and Zhao Y* The imbalance of Th17/Th1/Tregs in patients with type 2 diabetes: Relationship with metabolic factors and complications. J Molecular Medicine 2012, 90(2): 175-186.
  29. Zhen, Y., Sun, L., Liu, H., Duan, K., Zeng, C., Zhang, L., Jin, D., Peng, J., Ding, W.*, and Zhao, Y.* Alterations of peripheral CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells in mice with STZ-induced diabetes. Cell Mol Immunol 2012, 9(1): 75-85.
  30. Sun C, Sun L, Ma H, Peng J, Zhen Y, Duan K, Liu G, Ding W*  and Zhao Y.* The phenotype and functional alterations of macrophages in mice with hyperglycemia for long term J of Cell Physiology 2012, 227(4): 1670-1679.
  31. Duan K, Zhang B, Zhang W, Zhao Y, Qu Y, Sun C, and Zhao Y* Efficient peripheral construction of functional human regulatory CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ T cells in NOD/SCID mice grafted with fetal human thymus/liver tissues and CD34+ cells Transpl Immunol 2011, 25(4): 173-179.
  32. Liu G, Duan K, Ma H, Niu Z, Peng J, and Zhao Y*  An instructive role of donor macrophages in mixed chimeras in the induction of CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells. Immunology and Cell Biology 2011, 89(8): 827-835.
  33. Lai L*, Cui C, Jin J, Hao Z, Zheng Q, Ying M, Boyd R, and Zhao Y Mouse embryonic stem cell-derived thymic epithelial cell progenitors enhance T-cell reconstitution after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation Blood 2011; 118(12): 3410-3418
  34. Javeed A, Hou Y, Duan K, Zhang B, Shen H, Cao Y, Zhao Y*. Aspirin significantly decreases the nonopsonic phagocytosis and immunogenicity of macrophages in mice. Inflammation Research, 2011, 60(4): 389-398.
  35. Liu G, Ma H, Qiu L, Li L, Cao Y, Ma J, Zhao Y*. Phenotypic and functional switch of macrophages induced by regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells in mice. Immunology and Cell Biology. 2011, 89(1):130-42.
  36. Zhu S, Peigneur S, Gao B, Luo L, Jin D, Zhao Y, Tytgat. J  Molecular Diversity and Functional Evolution of Scorpion Potassium Channel Toxins. Molecular & Cellular Proteomics  2011;10(2):M110.002832
  37. Liu G, Zhang L and Zhao Y*. Modulation of immune responses through direct activation of Toll-like receptors to T cells. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 2010, 160: 168-175.
  38. Qu Y, Zhang B, Liu S, Zhang A, Wu T, Zhao Y*. 2-Gy whole-body irradiation significantly alters the balance of CD4+CD25-T effector cells and CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)T regulatory cells in mice. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2010, 7(6): 419-427.
  39. Sun Y, Zhu Z, Langnas AN, Grant WJ, Botha JF, Zhao Y, Sudan DL, Mercer DF. Plasma nitrite and nitrate levels as a noninvasive marker of pathology after human small bowel transplantation. Transplantation. 2010, 89(3): 307-311.
  40. Sun L, Guo J, Brown R, Amagai T, Zhao Y, Su DM. Declining expression of a single epithelial cell-autonomous gene accelerates age-related thymic involution. Aging Cell 2010, 9(3): 347-357.
  41. Zhao Y* and Li X*. Cross-immune tolerance: conception and its potential significance on transplantation tolerance. Cellular & Molecular Immunology 2010, 7(1): 20-25.
  42. Liang H, Yang L, Ma T and Zhao Y*. Functional expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulation in mouse chondrocytes. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology. 2010, 37: 506-508.
  43. Qu YY, Zhang AJ, Zhang BJ, Wang JJ and Zhao Y.*. Gamma-Ray Resistance of Regulatory CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T Cells in mice. Radiation Research 2010, 173(2): 148-157.
  44. Jiang P, Rao EY, Meng N, Zhao Y, Wang JJ: MicroRNA-17-92 significantly enhances radioresistance in human mantle cell lymphoma cells. Radiation Oncology 2010, 5:100.
  45. Zhang Y, Wang J, Liu F, You Z, Yang R, Zhao Y: EGFR inhibitor C225 increases the radiosensitivity of human lung squamous cancer cells. Cancer Cell International 2010, 10:39.
  46. You ZY, Zhao Y, Liu F, Zhang YD, Wang JJ: The radiosensitization effects of Endostar on human lung squamous cancer cells H-520. Cancer Cell International 2010, 10:17.
  47. Wang J, Liao A, Zhuang H, Zhao Y: The direct biologic effects of radioactive 125I seeds on pancreatic cancer cells PANC-1, at continuous low-dose rates. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2009, 24(4):409-416.
  48. Zhuang HQ, Wang JJ, Liao AY, Wang JD, Zhao Y: The biological effect of 125I seed continuous low dose rate irradiation in CL187 cells. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2009, 28:12.
  49. Liao A, Wang J, Zhuang H, Zhao Y. Relative biological effectiveness and cell-killing efficacy of continuous low-dose-rate 125I seeds on prostate carcinoma cells in vitro. Integr Cancer Ther 2010, 9: 59-65.
  50. Zheng Q, Xu Y, Liu Y, Zhang B, Li X, Guo F, and Zhao Y.* . Induction of Foxp3 demethylation increases regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells and prevents the occurrence of diabetes in mice. Journal of Molecular Medicine 2009, 87: 1191-1205.
  51. Ding C, Tian P, Jia L, Li Y, Ding X, Xiang H, Xue W, Zhao Y. The synergistic effects of C. Sinensis with CsA in preventing allograft rejection. Frontiers in Bioscience 2009, 14: 3864-3871.
  52. Huang Y, Walstrom A, Zhang L, Zhao Y, Cui M, Ye L and Zheng J. Type I interferons and interferon regulatory factors regulate TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in HIV-1-infected macrophages. 2009, PLoS ONE 4(4): e5397-1-14. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005397.
  53. Javeed A., Zhang B., Qu Y., Zhang A., Sun C., Zhang L., Liu J., Zeng C., and Zhao Y.*. The significantly enhanced frequency of functional CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells in therapeutic dose aspirin-treated mice. Transplant Immunology 2009, 20: 253-260.
  54. Zhang B., Zhang A., Qu Y., Liu J., Niu Z., and Zhao Y.*. Development of mouse CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in xenogeneic pig thymic grafts. Transplant Immunology 2009, 20: 180-185.
  55. Zhang B, Duan Z and Zhao Y.*. Mouse models with human immunity and their application in biomedical research. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 2009, 13(6): 1043-1058.
  56. Zhen Y., Zheng J., and Zhao Y.*. Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells and macrophages: communication between two regulators of effector T cells. Inflammation Research 2008, 57: 564-570.
  57. Zhang B., Sun C., Qu Y., Zhang A., Liu J., Zhang L., Niu Z., and Zhao Y.*. Deficiency of mouse CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in xenogeneic pig thymus-grafted nude mice suffering from autoimmune diseases. Cellular & Molecular Immunology 2008, 5: 325-32
  58. Wang N, Zhang JS, Zheng QH, Zhao Y.* The unique localization of ZFP185 at uropod of mouse T lymphocytes Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 2008, 67(4): 340-344.
  59. Yi HF, Zhang JL, and Zhao Y.*  The effects of antibody treatment on regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells Transplant Immunology 2008, 19(1): 37-44.
  60. Yi H, Zhen Y, Zeng C, Zhang LJ, and Zhao Y.*. Depleting anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (GK1.5) treatment: influence on regulatory CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in mice. Transplantation 2008, 85(8): 1167-1174.
  61. Ma HX, Liu GW, Ding WJ, Wu Y, Cai L, and Zhao Y.*. Diabetes-induced immunodeficiency of F4/80+ macrophages: a study in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Journal of Molecular Medicine 2008, 86(4): 391-400.
  62. Cui M, Huang YL, Zhao Y.*, and Zheng JL*. Transcription factor FoxO3a mediates cell apoptosis in HIV-1 infected macrophages. Journal of Immunology 2008, 180(2): 898-906.
  63. Javeed A. and Zhao Y.*. The effects of immunosuppression on regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells: impact on immunosuppression selection in transplantation. Molecular Diagnosis and Therapy 2008, 12: 171-181.
  64. Jin D., Zhang L., Zheng J., and Zhao Y.*. The inflammatory Th17 subset in immunity against self and non-self antigens. Autoimmunity 2008, 41: 154-162.
  65. Javeed A., and Zhao Y.*. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor: Role in inflammatory diseases and graft rejection. Inflammation Research 2007, 57(2): 45-50.
  66. Zhao Y.* and Li XC. Transplant tolerance: is it really free of concerns? Trends in Immunology 2007, 28(9): 376-377.
  67. Wang N, Zhang JS, Zheng QH, Zhao Y.*. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel mouse actin-binding protein ZFP185. Journal of Molecular Histology 2008, 39(3): 295-302.
  68. Sun LN, and Zhao Y*. The biological role of dectin-1 in immune response International Reviews of Immunology 2007, 26:349-364.
  69. Kawahara, T, Rodriguez-Barbosa, J-I, Zhao Y., Zhao, G, and Sykes, M. Global unresponsiveness as a mechanism of natural killer cell tolerance in mixed xenogeneic chimeras. American Journal of Transplantation 2007, 7(9):2090-2097.
  70. Zhang AJ, Qu Y, Zhang B, Zhang LJ, Zeng C, Peng JX,  Ji XB, Hou M, Zhao Y.*. The different effects of indirubin on effector and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in mice:potential implication for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Journal of Molecular Medicine 2007, 85: 1263-1270.
  71. Zhang BJ, Zhang AJ and Zhao Y.*. Platelet aggregation and thrombosis in xenotransplantation between pigs and humans. Thrombosis Research 2008, 121: 433-441.
  72. Qu YY. and Zhao Y.*. Regulatory CD4+CD25+T cells controlled by multiple pathways in multiple levels. International Review of Immunology 2007 26(3): 145-160.
  73. Zhao Y.*. The different effects of cyclosporin A and rapamycin on regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells: potential relationship with transplant tolerance induction. Expert Review of Clinical Immunology 2007, 3(3): 254-259.
  74. Liu GW, Ma HX, Jiang LL, Peng JX, and Zhao Y.*. The immunity of splenic and peritoneal F4/80+ resident macrophages in mouse mixed allogeneic chimeras. Journal of Molecular Medicine 2007, 85: 1125-1135.
  75. Yi H, Zhao Y.*. Chemokines, chemokine receptors and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Expert Review of Clinical Immunology 2007, 3(3): 343-349.
  76. Yi H, Zhang L, Zhen Y, He X, and Zhao Y*. Dendritic cells induced in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-5. Cytokine 2007, 37(1): 35-43.
  77. Zheng QH and Zhao Y.*. The diverse bio-functions of LIM domain proteins: determined by sub-cellular localization and protein-protein interaction. Biology of the Cell 2007, 99(9): 489-502.
  78. Liu GW, and Zhao Y.*. Toll-like receptors and immune regulation: their direct and indirect modulation on regulatory CD4+CD25+T cells. Immunology 2007, 122: 149-156.
  79. Wu TH, Zhen Y, Zeng C, and Zhao Y.*.  B and T lymphocyte attenuator interacts with CD3ζ and inhibits Tyrosine phosphorylation of TCRζ complex during T cell activation. Immunology and Cell Biology 2007, 85: 590-595.
  80. Liu GW, Ma, HX, Jiang LL, and Zhao Y.*.  Allograft inflammatory factor-1 and its immune regulation. Autoimmunity 2007, 40(2): 95-102.
  81. Zhang LJ, and Zhao Y.*. The regulation of Foxp3 expression in regulatory CD4+CD25+T cells: multiple pathways on the road. Journal of Cellular Physiology 2007, 211(3): 590-597.
  82. Zhao L, Wang HJ, Sun LG, Ma HX, Liu GW and Zhao Y.*. Changes of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in aged Balb/c mice. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 2007, 81(6):1386-1394.
  83. Zhang L, Sun L, Zhao Y.*. Thymic epithelial progenitor cells and thymus regeneration: an update. Cell Research 2007, 17: 50-55.
  84. Zeng C, Y Zhen, S Shu, T Wu, H Yi, Z Lian, and Zhao Y.*. The influence of cyclosporin A on lymphocyte attenuator expression. Journal of Autoimmunity 2007, 28(4): 234-44.
  85. Qu Y; Zhang B; Zhao L; Liu G; Ma H; E Rao; C Zeng; and Zhao Y.*. The effect of immunosuppressive drug rapamycin on regulatory CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T cells in mice. Transplant Immunology 2007, 17: 153-161.
  86. Zhao Y.*, Sun Y, Niu ZQ, Li QH, Peng JX, Wang JJ, and Langnas A. A novel approach to generate host anti-tumor T cells: Adoptive immunotherapy by T cells maturing in xenogeneic thymus. Journal of Immunotherapy 2007, 30(1): 83-88.
  87. Liu GW, Ma HX, Zhao Y. Wu Y, and Zhao Y.*. The nonopsonic allogeneic cell phagocytosis of macrophages detected by flow cytometry and two photon fluorescence microscope. Transplant Immunology 2006, 16: 220-226.
  88. Liu GW,Xia XP, Gong SL and Zhao Y.*. The macrophage heterogeneity: difference between mouse peritoneal exudates and splenic F4/80+ macrophages. Journal of Cellular Physiology 2006, 209: 341-352.
  89. Zhao Y.* and Liu GW. Specific immune tolerance of antigen-presenting cells: Hypothesis and significance. Medical Hypotheses 2007, 68: 404-406.
  90. Zhang BJ, Ge B, Xia X, Liu J, Sun LG, Rao EY, and Zhao Y.* . Compatibility between Porcine and Human IL-2: Implication for xenotransplantation.  Xenotransplantation 2006, 13: 423-432.
  91. Wang HJ, Zhao L, Sun ZY, Sun LG, and Zhao Y.*. A potential side effects of Cyclosporin A: its inhibition on CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in mice. Transplantation 2006, 82(11):1484-1492.
  92. Zhao, Y.*. The two simultaneously occurring processes in one immune response: The positive immune reaction and immune tolerance. Medical Hypotheses 2006, 67(6): 1384-1385.
  93. Sun ZY, Wang HJ, Sun LG, Zhao L, Yi HF, Li QH, Peng JX, and Zhao Y.*. Presence of functional mouse regulatory CD4+CD25+T cells in xenogeneic neonatal porcine thymus-grafted athymic mice. American Journal of  Transplantation 2006, 6(12): 2841-2850.
  94. Sun YM, Yang Z, Niu Z, Li Q, Peng J, Langnas AN., Ma M. Y., and Zhao Y.*. MOP3, a component of the molecular clock, regulates the development of B cells. Immunology 2006, 119(4): 451-460.
  95. Sun YM, Yang Z, Niu Z, Li Q, Peng J, Wang W, Ma M. Y. and Zhao Y.*. The mortality of MOP3 deficient mice with a systemic functional failure. Journal of Biomedical Science 2006, 13: 845-851.
  96. Liu GW, Wu GL, Wu Y, and Zhao Y.*. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and immune regulation. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 2006, 64(1): 1-9.
  97. Zhang LJ, Yi HF, Xia XP, and Zhao Y.*. Transforming growth factor-b: an important role in CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and immune tolerance. Autoimmunity 2006, 39(4): 269-276.
  98. Liu GW, Wu Y, Gong SL, and Zhao Y.*. Toll-like receptors and graft rejection. Transplant Immunology 2006, 16: 25-31.
  99. Yi H., Zhen Y., Jiang L., Zheng J., and Zhao Y.*. The phenotypic characterization of naturally occurring regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells. Cellular & Molecular Immunology 2006, 3(3): 189-195.
  100. Sun YM, Ge BS, Kasai M, Diffendaffer C, Parks N, Li H, Peng JX, Langnas A, and Zhao Y.*. Induction of regulatory T cells from mature T cells by allogeneic thymic epithelial cells in vitro. Transplant International 2006, 19(5): 404-414.
  101. Wu TH, Yang RL, Xie LP, Wang HZ, Chen Li, Zhang SY, Zhao Y. and Zhang RQ. Inhibition of cell growth and induction of G1-phase cell cycle arrest in hepatoma cells by steroid extract from Meretix. Cancer Letters 2006, 232(2): 199-205.
  102. Zeng C, Wu T, Zhen Y, Xia XP, Zhao Y.*. BTLA, a new inhibitory B7 family receptor with a TNFR family ligand. Cellular & Molecular Immunology 2005, 2(6):427-432.
  103. Zhang JL, Cai J, Walls S, Jackson JD, Kuszynski CA, Zhao Y., Pawliuk R, Leboulch P, Fox IJ. Tolerance by selective in vivo expansion of foreign major histocompatibility complex-transduced autologous bone marrow. Transplantation 2005, 80(3):362-369.
  104. Huang Y, Erdman N, Peng H, Zhao Y. and Zheng JL. The Role of TNF Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Cellular & Molecular Immunology 2005, 2(2): 113-122.
  105. Sun ZY, Fu JY, Sun LG, Liu SC, Zhao Y. and Gong SL. Inhibitory Effect on Tumor Growth of Tumor-Associated Antigen Peptides from Murine Hepatocarcinoma H-22. U.S. Chinese Journal of Lymphology and Oncology 2005, 4(1): 11-15.
  106. Sun Y. M., Li H., Langnas A. N. and Zhao Y.. Altered allogeneic immune responses in middle-aged mice. Cellular & Molecular Immunology 2004, 1(6): 440-446.
  107. Xiong W.F., Zhao Y., Prall A.K., Greiner T.C., and Baxter, B.T. Key roles of CD4+ and Interferon-γ in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms in a murine model. Journal of Immunology 2004, 172: 2607-2612.
  108. Zhao Y.*, Sun Y, Sun Y.M., and Langnas A.N. Achievement of cellular immunity and discordant xenogeneic tolerance in mice by porcine thymus grafts (review). Cellular & Molecular Immunology 2004, 1(3): 173-179.
  109. Sun Y.M., Langnas A.N., and Zhao Y.*. The interaction defect of accessory molecules is responsible for the poor ex vivo xenogeneic response to human antigens of mouse T helper cells.  Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 2003, 58: 59-66.
  110. Sykes M., Garrigue V., Johson R.P., Nikolic B., Rodriguez-Barbosa J.I., Rosenzweig M., Sachs D.H., Wu A., Yamada K., and Zhao Y.*. Xenogeneic thymic replacement to achieve immune restoration in HIV infection. Clinical and Applied Immunology Reviews 2003, 3: 167-171.
  111. Zhao Y., Rodriguez-Barbosa J.I., Shimizu A., Swenson K., Sachs D.H., and Sykes M.  Despite efficient intrathymic negative selection of host-reactive T cells, autoimmune disease may develop in porcine thymus-grafted athymic mice: Evidence for failure of regulatory mechanisms suppressing autoimmunity. Transplantation 2003, 75: 1832-1840.
  112. Zhao Y., Ohdan H., Manilay J.O., and Sykes M. NK cell tolerance in mixed allogeneic chimeras. Journal of Immunology 2003, 170: 5398-5405.
  113. Yang T.Y., YM Sun, Langnas A.N., and Zhao Y.*. Prolongation of allogeneic skin graft survival by injection of anti-Ly49A mAb, YE1/48. Clinical Immunology 2003, 106: 148-154.
  114. Zhao Y.*, Xiong W.F., Yang T.Y., Prall A., Baxter B.T., and Langnas A.N. Xenogeneic rat skin graft rejection in M-CSF/macrophage deficient mice. Xenotransplantation 2003, 10: 232-239.
  115. Beschorner W. E., Shearon C. C., Yang T., Langnas A. N., Thompson S. C., Zhao Y., Franco K. L., Radio S. J., and Sudan D. L. Pre-transplant analysis of accommodation in donor pigs. Xenotransplantation 2003, 10(1): 66-71.
  116. Rodriguez-Barbosa J.I., Zhao Y., Houser S., Zhao G., Sachs D.H., and Sykes M. Fetal porcine thymus engraftment, survival and CD4 reconstitution in aGal KO mice is impaired in the presence of high levels of antibodies against aGal. Xenotransplantation 2003, 10(1): 24-40.
  117. Rodriguez-Barbosa J.I., Zhao Y., Ezquerra A., Zhao G., Sachs D.H., and Sykes M. Murine CD4 T cells selected in a highly disparate xenogeneic porcine thymus graft do not show rapid decay in the absence of selecting MHC in the periphery. Journal of Immunology 2002, 169: 6697-6710.
  118. Longo G.M., Xiong W., Greiner T.C., Zhao Y., Fiotti N., and Baxter B.T. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 work in concert to produce aortic aneurysms. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2002, 110(5): 625-632.
  119. Zhao Y., Rodriguez-Barbosa J.I., Arn J.S., and Sykes M.  Highly disparate xenogeneic skin graft tolerance induction by fetal pig thymus in thymectomized mice: Conditioning requirements and the role of coimplantation of fetal pig liver. Transplantation 2001, 72: 1608-1615.
  120. Rodriguez-Barbosa J.I., Zhao Y., Barth R., Zhao G., Arn J.S., Sach D.H., and Sykes M.  Enhanced CD4 reconstitution by grafting neonatal porcine tissue in alternative locations is associated with donor-specific tolerance and suppression of pre-existing xenoreactive T cells.  Transplantation 2001, 72 1223.
  121. Zhao Y., Rodriguez-Barbosa J.I., Zhao G.L., Shaffer J., Arn J.S., and Sykes M.  Maturation and function of mouse T cells with a transgenic TCR positively selected by highly disparate xenogeneic porcine MHC.  Cellular and Molecular Biology 2001, 47: 217-228.
  122. Zhao Y., Rodriguez-Barbosa J.I., Swenson K., Barth R.N., Shimizu A., Arn J.S., Sachs D.H., and Sykes M.  The induction of specific pig skin graft tolerance by grafting with neonatal pig thymus in thymectomized mice. Transplantation 2000, 69: 1447.
  123. Zhao Y., Swenson K., Wekerle T., Rodriguez-Barbosa J.I., Arn J.S., and Sykes M.  The Critical role of mouse CD4+ cells in the rejection of highly disparate xenogeneic pig thymus grafts.  Xenotransplantation 2000, 7: 129-137.
  124. Asada A., Zhao Y., Komano H., Kumata T., Fujita K., Tozawa Y., Iseki R., Tian H., Sato K., Motegi Y., Suzuki R., Yokoyama M., and Iwata M. The calcium-independent protein kinase C participates in an early process of CD3/CD28-mediated induction of thymocyte apoptosis. Cell Death and Differentiation. Immunology 2000, 101: 309-315.
  125. Chae S.J., Kramer A.D., Zhao Y., Arn S., Cooper D.K.C., and Sachs D.H.   Lack of variation in agal expression on lymphocytes in miniature swine of different genotypes. Xenotransplantation 1999, 6: 43-51.
  126. Zhao Y., Swenson K., Sergio J.J., and Sykes M.  Pig MHC mediates positive selection of mouse CD4+ T cells with a mouse MHC-restricted TCR in pig thymus grafts. Journal of Immunology 1998, 161: 1320-1326.
  127. Asada A., Zhao Y., Kondo S., and Iwata M.  Induction of thymocyte apoptosis by Ca2+-independent Protein Kinase C (nPKC) activation and its regulation by calcineurin activation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1998, 273: 28382-28398.
  128. Wekerle T., Sayegh M.H., Hill J., Zhao Y., Chandraker A., Swenson K.G., Zhao G., and Sykes M.  Extrathymic T cell deletion and allogeneic stem cell engraftment induced with costimulatory blockade is followed by central T cell tolerance. Journal of Experimental Medicine 1998, 187: 2037-2044.
  129. Zhao Y., Fishman J.A., Sergio J.J., Oliveros J.L., Pearson D.A., Szot G.L., Wilkinson R.A., Arn J.S., Sachs D.H., and Sykes M.  Immune restoration by fetal pig thymus grafts in T cell-depleted, thymectomized mice. Journal of Immunology 1997, 158: 1641-1649.
  130. Khan A., Sergio J.J., Zhao Y., Pearson D.A., Sachs D.H., and Sykes M.  Discordant xenogeneic neonatal thymic transplantation can induce donor-specific tolerance. Transplantation 1997, 63: 124.
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  132. Zhao Y. and Sykes M.  Resistance to mAb-induced CD8+ T cell depletion in thymectomized MHC class II deficient mice. Transplantation 1997, 64: 489.
  133. Zhao Y., Swenson K., Sergio J.J., Arn J.S., Sachs D.H., and Sykes M.  Skin graft tolerance across a discordant xenogeneic barrier. Nature Medicine 1996, 2(11): 1211-1216.
  134. Zhao Y. and Iwata M.  Crosslinking of the T cell receptor/CD3 complex and CD4, CD8, or LFA-1 induces an anti-apoptotic signal in thymocytes: the signal is canceled by FK506. International Immunology 1995, 7(9): 1387-1396.
  135. Zhao Y., Tozawa Y., Iseki R., Mukai M., and Iwata M.  Calcineurin activation protects T cells from glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. Journal of Immunology 1995, 154: 6346-6356.