Location: Home > Scientists
  Principal Investigators
LEI, Fu-Min
+86-10-64807159  /  +86-10-64807159
Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, P.R. China
Group of Ornithological      

1991-1994  Ph.D. Ornithology, Institute of Zoology, CAS
1987-1990  M.Sc. Zoology, Shaanxi Normal University
1983-1987  B.Sc. Biology, Shaanxi Normal University

Positions and Employment:
2000-present, Professor, Institute of Zoology, CAS
1998-2000, Post-doc, University of Michigan, and as a visiting professor in California Academy of Sciences and University of Washington, USA
1996-2000, Associate Professor, Institute of Zoology, CAS
1994-1996, Assistant Professor, Institute of Zoology, CAS

Research Interests:
Taxonomy, vocalization and evolution.
Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography.
Geographical distribution, endemism and biodiversity conservation.
Adaptive evolution under extreme environments (e.g. Tibetan Plateau) by comparative genomics.
Molecular epidemiology of wildlife diseases (e.g. avian influenza)

Awards and Honors:
2009, National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scientists
2008, Thomson Reuters Research Fronts Award 2008
2006, The 1st China Zoological Society Youth Scientist Award
2005, The 5th Tibetan Plateau Youth Scientist Award
2000, Cheng Tso-Hsin Excellent Youth in Ornithology Prize

Professional Activities:

Professional memberships:
2014-, Vice-president of the International Ornithologists’ Union (IOU)
2006/1998-, Fellow of (IOU) (formerly International Ornithological Committee member)
2012-, Hornary member of American Ornithologists’ Union (AOU)
2007-, Scientific Program Committee member of 25th International Ornithological Congress
2005-, The vice-president of China Ornithological Society
2001-, Member of China Rare & Endangered Species Scientific Committee

Other professional activities:
Editor for Asia, Journal of Ornithology
Associate editor-in-chief, Avian Research, andZoological Systematics
Associate editor, Journal of Biogeography, and Current Zoology
Editorial board member, Scientific Reports, Integrative Zoology, International Journal of Biodiversity, and The Open Ornithology Journal, etc.

Research Grants:
Main fundings (since last five years): source and amount: (Lei FM as PI)





A study on speciation and hybridization of the Black-browed Tit (Aegithalos bonvaloti) and Sooty Tit (A. fuliginosus)


China MOST

Investigation of animal resources and resource assessment of important animal groups in Southeast Tibet


CAS-SPR Program

Analysis of birds’ adaptive properties to the high Qinghai-Tibet plateau



Studies on the evolutionary mechanisms of bird adaptation to the extreme environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau



Surveillance of Emerging Infectious Diseases in Wildlife Trade to Increase Awareness for Zoonoses Prevention and Wildlife Conservation


Selected Publications:

(over 240 papers and chapters were published in the peer-reviewed journals or monographs; # To whom correspondence)


  1. Alström P, Zhao M, He P and Lei FM. 2015. New locality for the endangered Blackthroat Calliope obscura. Journal of Ornithology 157:371-372.
  2. Alström P, Rasmussen PC, Zhao C, Xu JZ, Dalvi S, Cai TL, Guan YY, Zhang YY, Kalyakin MV, Lei FM and Olsson U. 2016. Integrative taxonomy of the Plain-backed Thrush (Zoothera mollissima) complex (Aves, Turdidae) reveals cryptic species, including a new species. Avian Research (in press).
  3. Liu SX, Jiang N, Xue DY, Cheng R, Lei FM# and Han HX#. 2016. Evolutionary history of Apocheimacinerarius (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a female flightless moth in Northern China. Zoologica Scripta 45,160-174.
  4. Song G*, Zhang RY*, DuBay SG, Qu YH, Dong L, Wang WJ, Zhang YY, Lambert DM and Lei FM#. 2016. Allopatric east and sympatric west, same population dynamics in the past: A multi-locus phylogeography of Long-tailed Tit across Eurasia continent. Zoologica Scripta 45,115-126.
  5. Song G*, Zhang RY*, Qu YH, Wang ZH, Dong L, Kristin A, Alström P, Ericson PGP, Lambert D, Fjeldså J and Lei FM#. 2015. A zoogeographic break between the Palearctic and Sino-Japanese realms documented by consistent North / South genetic divergences in three woodland birds in eastern China. Journal of Biogeography (accepted).
  6. Zhang CL, Quan Q, Wu YJ, Chen YH, He P, Qu YH# and Lei FM#. 2015. The topographic heterogeneity explains the species richness pattern of birds in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Current Zoology (accepted)
  7. Zhang Z, Huang Y, Wang XY, Olsson U, Martínez J, Alström P# and Lei FM#. 2016. Phylogeny of Cyornis flycatchers (Aves: Muscicapidae): unexpected divergence and lack of divergence revealed. Molecular Phylogenetic and Evolution 94, 232-241.
  8. 朱筱佳, 管玉艳, 雷富民#。2016。血红蛋白与脊椎动物高海拔适应进化。中国科学 46(1): 84-102。


  1. Alstrom P#, Xia CW, Rasmussen PC, Olsson U, Dai B, Zhao J, Learder PJ, Carey GJ, Dong L, Cai TL, Holt PI, Manh HL, Song G, Liu Y, Zhang YY and Lei FM#. 2015. Integrative taxonomy of the Russet Bush Warbler Locustella mandelli complex reveals a new species from central China. Avian Research 6:9.
  2. Bi YH#, Zhang ZJ, Liu WJ, Yin YB, Hong JM, Li XD, Wang HM, Wong G, Chen JJ, , Li YF, Ru WD, Gao RY, Liu D, Liu YX, Zhou BP, Gao GF, Shi WF# and Lei FM#. 2015. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Struck Migratory Birds in China in 2015. Scientific Reports 5:12986.
  3. Lei FM#, Qu YH, Song G, Alström P. and Fjeldså J. 2015. On mechanism determining high species richness and endemism in east Himalaya-Mountains of Southwest China. Integrative Zoology 10:171-181.
  4. Li J, Rao YH, Sun QL, Wu XX, Jin J, Bi YH, Chen J, Lei FM, Liu QY, Duan ZY, Ma JC, Gao GF, Liu D and Liu WJ#. 2015. Identification of climate factors related to human infection with avian influenza A H7N9 and H5N1 viruses in China. Scientific Reports 5,18094-18094.
  5. Li XL, Dong F, Lei FM, Alström P, Zhang RY, Ödeen A, Zou FS and Yang XY. 2015. Shaped by uneven Pleistocene climate: mitochondrial phylogeographic pattern and population history of White Wagtail Motacilla alba (Aves: Passeriformes). Journal of Avian Biology 46: 001-012.
  6. Li XJ, Huang Y# and Lei FM#. 2015. Comparative mitochondrial genomics and phylogenetic relationship of Crossoptilon species (Phasianidae, Galliformes). BMC Genomics 16:42.
  7. Mays HL#, McKay BD, Tietze DT, Yao CT, Miller L, Moreland K and FM Lei. 2015. A multilocus molecular phylogeny for the avian genus Liocichla (Passeriformes: Leiothrichidae: Liocichla). Avian Research 6:17.
  8. Peterson AT, Moyle RG, Lei FM, Campillo LC, Hosner PA, Klicka LB, Lim HC,. Nyári ÁS, Qu YH, Reddy S, Sheldon FH and Zou FS. 2015. Avian evolution and speciation in the Southeast Asian tropics. Current Zoology 61 (5): 898-900.
  9. Qu YH*, Fu J*, Han NJ, Zhao HW, Gao B, Tian SL, Cheng YL, Song G, Ericson PGP, Zhang Y, Wang DW, Quan Q, Jiang Z, Li RQ and Lei FM#. 2015. Genetic responses to seasonal variation in altitudinal stress: whole-genome resequencing of great tits in East Himalayas. Scientific Reports 5: 14256-14256.
  10. Qu YH, Song G, Gao B, Quan Q, Ericson PGP and Lei FM#. 2015. The influence of geological events on the endemism of East Asian birds studied through comparative phylogeography. Journal of Biogeography 42, 179-192.
  11. Quan Q, Qu YH and Lei FM#. 2015. Genetic diversification in the East Himalayas as revealed by comparative phylogeography of the black-throated bushtit and Elliot’s laughing thrush. Current Zoology 61 (5): 935-942.
  12. Shaner PJ, Tsao TH, Lin RC, Liang W, Ye CF, Yang XJ, Lei FM, Zhou F, Yang CC and Li SH. 2015. Climate niche differentiation between two passerines despite ongoing gene flow. Journal of Animal Ecology 84, 829-839.
  13. Wang XY, Huang Y# and Lei FM#. 2015. Seven complete mitochondrial genome sequences of bushtits (Passeriformes, Aegithalidae, Aegithalos): the evolution pattern in duplicated control regions. Mitochondria DNA 26 (3): 350-356.
  14. Wang XY, Liu N, Zhang HL, Yang XJ, Huang Y# and Lei FM#. 2015. Extreme variation in patterns of tandem repeats in mitochondrial control region of yellow-browed tits (Sylviparus modestus, Paridae). Scientific Reports 5:13227.
  15. Zhang GJ#, Rahbek C#, Graves GR#, Lei FM#, Jarvis ED# and Gilbert MTP#. 2015. Bird sequencing project takes off. Nature 522,34, s1.
  16. Ma YG, Huang XY, Huang Y# and Lei FM#. 2015. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Onychostruthus taczanowskii (Aves, Passeridae) and its phylogenetic analysis. Mitochondrial DNA 1940-1744.
  17. 李雪娟,黄原#,雷富民#。2014。山鹧鸪属鸟类线粒体基因组的比较及系统发育研究。遗传 36(9): 912-920。


  1. Alström P, Hooper DM, Liu Y, Olsson U, Mohan D, Gelang M, Hung LM, Zhao J, Lei FM, Price TR. 2014. Discovery of a relict lineage of passerine birdin a monotypic family. Biology Letters 10(3): 31067-31067.
  2. Cui LB, Liu D, Shi WF, Pan JC, Qi X, Li XB, Guo XL, Zhou MH, Li W, Li J, Xiao HX, Yu XF, Pu XY, Wu Y, Yu HY, Zhao KC, Zhu YF, Wu B, Jin T, Shi ZY, Tang FY, Zhu FC, Sun QL, Wu LH, Yang RF, Shi Y, Yan JH, Lei FM, Zhu BL, Liu WJ, Ma JC, Wang H, GF Gao. 2013. Dynamic reassortments and host-adapting genetic drift drive the diversity of the human-infecting influenza A (H7N9) virus. Nature Communications 5, (DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4142).
  3. Cui P#, Zhou DQ, Wu Y, Wu J, Lei JC, Shao MQ, Liu GH, Wu XD, Wu JD, Ji WT and Lei FM#. 2014. The ecological risks of avian influenza virus spread via migratory birds: A case study at Poyang Lake, China. Pakistan J. Zool. 46(6): 1545-1555.
  4. Dong F, Li SH, Zou FS, Lei FM, Liang W, Yang JX#, Yang XJ#. 2014. Molecular systematics and plumage coloration evolution of an enigmatic babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis) in East Asia. Molecular Phylogenetic and Evolution 70,76-83.
  5. Dong F, Zou FS, Lei FM, Liang W, Li SH and Yang XJ. 2014. Testing hypotheses of mitochondrial gene-tree paraphyly: unraveling mitochondrial capture of the Streak-breasted Scimitar Babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis) by the Taiwan Scimitar Babbler (P. musicus). Molecular Ecology 23, 5855-5867.
  6. Hung CM, Hung HY, Yeh CF, Fu YQ, Chen D, Lei FM, Yao CT, Yao CJ, Yang XJ Lai YT and Li SH. 2014. Species delimitation in the Chinese bamboo partridge Bambusicola thoracica (Phasianidae; Aves). Zoologica Scripta 43(6):562-575.
  7. Lei FM#, Qu YH and Song G. 2014. Species diversification and phylogeographical patterns of birds in response to the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Quaternary glaciations. Current Zoology 60(2): 149-161.
  8. Li XB, Zhang Z, Yu AL, Ho SYW, Carr MJ, Zheng WM, Zhang YZ, Zhu CD#, Lei FM#, Shi WF#. 2014. Global and Local Persistence Featuring the Migration Dynamics of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5N1 Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases 20(8):1287-1295.
  9. Li XJ, Huang Y# and Lei FM#. 2014. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Bonasa sewerzowi (Galliformes: Phasianidae) and phylogenetic analysis. Zoological Systematics 39(3): 359-371.
  10. Ma YG, Huang Y and Lei FM. 2014. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the Pyrgilauda ruficollis (Aves, Passeridae) complete mitochondrial genome. Zoological Research 35 (2): 81-91.
  11. Qi WB, Zhou XF, Shi WF, Huang LH, Xiao XC, Xia W, Liu D, Li HN, Chen SG, Lei FM, Cao L, Wu JW, He FL, Song WT, Li Q, Li H, Liao M, Liu MB. 2014. Genesis of the novel human-infecting influenza A(H10N8) virus and potential genetic diversity of the virus in poultry, China. Eurosurveillance 19(25): 50-62.
  12. Qu YH, Ericson PGP, Quan Q, Song G, Gao B, Zhang RY and Lei FM#. 2014. Long-term isolation and stability explain high genetic diversity in the Eastern Himalaya. Molecular Ecology 23, 705-720.
  13. Qu YH, Song G, Gao B, Quan Q, Ericson PGP and Lei FM#. 2014. The influence of geological events on the endemism of East Asian birds studied through comparative phylogeography. Journal of Biogeography 42, 179-192.
  14. Song G, Alström P#, Gao XB, Zhang YW, Gong HS, Holt PI, Quan Q, Yin ZH and Lei FM#. 2014. Rediscovery of an enigmatic Chinese passerine, the Blackthroat Calliope obscura: plumage, vocalizations, distribution, habitat choice, nesting and conservation. Journal of Ornithology 155: 347-356.
  15. Wang WJ, Dai CY, Alström P, Zhang CL, Qu YH, Li SH, Yang XJ, Zhao N, Song G and Lei FM#. 2014. Past hybridization between two East Asian long-tailed tits (Aegithalos bonvaloti and A. fuliginosus). Frontiers in Zoology 11:40.
  16. Wu YJ, Colwell RK, Quan Q, Zhang CL and Lei FM#. 2014. Understanding the species richness pattern of babblers along an elevational gradient from historical and ecological viewpoints. Global Ecology and Biogeography 23, 1167-1176.
  17. 李雪娟,黄原#,雷富民#。2014。山鹧鸪属鸟类线粒体基因组的比较及系统发育研究。遗传 36(9)。



  1. Chu JH, Wegmann D, Yeh CF, Lin RC, Yang XJ, Lei FM, Yao CT, Zou FS and Li SH. 2013. Inferring the geographic mode of speciation by contrasting autosomal and sex-linked genetic diversity. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30(11):2519-2530.
  2. Dai CY, Wang WJ and Lei FM#. 2013. Multilocus phylogeography (mitochondrial, autosomal and Z-chromosomal loci) and genetic consequences of long-distance male dispersal in Black-throated tits (Aegithalos concinnus). Heredity 110(5): 457-465.
  3. Liu D, Shi WF, Shi Y, Wang DY, Xiao HX, Li W, Bi YH, Wu Y, Li XB, Yan JH, Liu WJ, Zhao GP, Yang WZ, Wang Y, Ma JC, Shu YL#, Lei FM# and Gao GF#. 2013. Origin and diversity of novel avian influenza A H7N9 viruses causing human infection: phylogenetic, structural, and coalescent analyses. Lancet 381(9881): 1926-1932.
  4. Qu YH, Zhao HW, Han NJ, Zhou GY, Song G, Gao B, Tian SL, Zhang JB, Zhang RY, Meng XH, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Zhu XJ, Wang WJ, Lambert D, Ericson PGP, Yeung C, Zhu HM, Jiang Z, Li RQ# and Lei FM#. 2013. Ground tit genome reveals avian adaptation to living at high altitudes in the Tibetan plateau. Nature Communication. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3071. 
  5. Song G, Alström P#, Gao XB, Zhang YW, Gong HS, Holt PI, Quan Q, Yin ZH and Lei FM#. 2013. Rediscovery of an enigmatic Chinese passerine, the Blackthroat Calliope obscura: plumage, vocalizations, distribution, habitat choice, nesting and conservation. Journal of Ornithology DOI 10.1007/s10336-013-1009-5.
  6. Song G, Yu LJ, Gao B, Zhang RY, Qu YH, Lambert DM, Li SH, Zhou TL and Lei FM#. 2013. Gene flow maintains genetic diversity and colonization potential in recently range-expanded populations of an Oriental bird, the Light-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis, Aves: Pycnonotidae). Diversity and Distribution 19, 1248–1262..
  7. Wang WJ, McKay BD, Dai CY, Zhao N, Zhang RY, Qu YH, Song G, Li SH, Liang W, Yang XJ, Pasquet E and Lei FM#. 2013. Glacial expansion and diversification of an East Asian montane bird, the green-backed tit (Parus monticolus). Journal of Biogeography 40(6): 1156–1169.
  8. Wu YJ, Robert C, Rahbek C, Zhang CL, Quan Q, Wang CK and Lei FM#. 2013. Explaining the species richness of birds along an elevational gradient in the subtropical Hengduan Mountains, China. Journal of Biogeography 40, 2310-2323.
  9. Xing XY, Alström P#, Yang XJ and Lei FM#. 2013. Recent northward range expansion promotes song evolution in a passerine bird, the Light-vented Bulbul. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26(4): 867-877.


  1. Huang XL, Hawkins BA, Lei FM, Miller GL, Favret C, Zhang RL and Qiao GX. 2012. Willing or unwilling to share primary biodiversity data: results and implications of an international survey. Conservation Letters 5:399-406.
  2. Lei FM#. 2012. Global endemism needs spatial integration. Science 335, 284-285.
  3. Li DM, Wang G, Wingfield JC# and Lei FM#. 2012. A comparison of the adrenocortical responses to acute stress in cardueline finches from the Tibetan Plateau, Arctic Alaska and lowland Western North America. Journal of Ornithology 153:761-770.
  4. Liu HT, Wang WJ, Song G, Qu YH, Li SH Jon Fjeldsa J and Lei FM#. 2012. Interpreting the process behind endemism in China by integrating the phylogeography and ecological niche models of the Stachyris ruficeps. PLOS ONE e46761.
  5. Qu YH, Zhang RY, Quan Q, Song G, Li SH and Lei FM#. 2012. Incomplete lineage sorting or secondary admixture: disentangling historical divergence from recent gene flow in the Vinous-throated parrotbill (Paradoxornis webbianus). Molecular Ecology 21, 6117–6133.
  6. Zhang RY. Song G, Qu YH, Alström P, Ramos R, Xing XY, Ericson PG, Fjeldså J, Wang HT, Yang XJ, Kristin A, Shestopalov AM, Choe JC and Lei FM#. 2012. Comparative phylogeography of two widespread magpies: Importance of habitat preference and breeding behavior on genetic structure in China. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 562-572.
  7. Zhao N, Dai CY, Wang WJ, Zhang RY, Qu YH, Song G, Chen K, Yang XJ, Zou FS and Lei FM#. 2012. Pleistocene climate changes shaped the divergence and demography of Asian populations of the great tit Parus major: evidence from phylogeographic analysis and ecological niche models. Journal of Avian Biology 43: 297-310.


  1. Cui P, Hou YS, Tang MJ, Zhang HT, Zhou YC, Yin ZH, Li TX, Guo S, Xing Z, He YB, Prosser DJ, Newman SH, Takekawa JY, Yan BP and Lei FM#. 2011. Movements of the Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus in relation to H5N1 spread during breeding and post breeding periods in Qinghai Lake, China. Journal of Ornithology 152: 83-92.
  2. Cui P, Hou YS, Xing Z, He YB, Li TX, Guo S, Luo Z, Yan BP, Yin ZH and Lei FM#. 2010. Bird Migration and Risk for H5N1 Transmission into Qinghai Lake, China. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 11(5): 567-576.
  3. Dai CY, Zhao N, Wang WJ, Lin CT, Gao B, Yang XJ, Zhang ZW and Lei FM#. 2011. Application of Phylogeographic and Ecological Niche Models to an East Asian subspecies group of Black-throated tit (Aegithalos concinnus talifuensis–concinnus): novel patterns, complex dynamics, multiple refugia and conservation insights. PLoS ONE 6 (12): e29329.
  4. Lei FM and Shi WF. 2011. Prospective of genomics in revealing transmission, reassortment and evolution of wildlife-borne avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses. Current Genomics 12(7): 451-465.
  5. Qu YH, Luo X, Zhang RY, Song G, Zou FS and Lei FM#. 2011. Lineage diversification and historical demography of a montane bird Garrulax elliotii - implications for the Pleistocene evolutionary history of the eastern Himalayas. BMC Evolutionary Biology 11:174.
  6. Qu YH, Zhang RY, Cui P, Song G, Duan ZY# and Lei FM#. 2011. Evolutionary genomics of the pandemic 2009 H1N1 (pH1N1v) influenza viruses. Virology Journal 8: 250.
  7. Wu HC, Lin RC, Hung HY, Yeh CF, Yang XJ, Yao CJ, Zou FS, Yao CT, Li SH# and Lei FM#. 2011. Molecular and morphological evidences revealed the cryptic species in the vinaceous rosefinch Carpodacus vinaceus (Fringillidae; Aves). Zoologica Scripta 40(5):468-478.


  1. Qu YH, Lei FM#, Zhang RY and Lu X. 2010. Comparative phylogeography of five avian species: implications for Pleistocene evolutionary history in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. Molecular Ecology 19: 338-351.
  2. Shi WF, Lei FM, Zhu CD and Higgins DG. 2010. A complete analysis of HA genes of influenza A viruses. PLOS ONE 5(12):14454.
  3. Qu YH, Lei FM#. 2009. Comparative phylogeography of two endemic birds of the Tibetan plateau, white-rumped snow finch (Onychostruthus taczanowskii) and Hume’s ground tit (Pseudopodoces humilis). Molecular Phylogenetics Evolution 51:312-326.
  4. Song G, Qu YH, Yin ZH, Li SH, Liu NF and Lei FM#. 2009. Phylogeography of the Alcippe morrisonia (Aves: Timaliidae): long population history beyond late Pleistocene glaciations. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9: 143.
  5. Li DM, Wang G, Wingfield JC, Zhang Z, Ding CQ and Lei FM#. 2008. Seasonal changes in adrenocortical responses to acute stress in Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus) from Tibetan Plateau: comparison with House Sparrow (P. domesticus) in North America and with the migratory P. domesticus bactrianus in Qinghai Province. General Comparative Endocrinology 158(1): 47-53.
  6. Luo X, Qu YH, Li SH, Han LX and Lei FM#. 2008. A phylogenetic analysis of laughingthrushes (Timaliidae: Garrulax) and their allies using mitochondrial and nucleotide sequences. Zoologica Scripta 38(1):9-22.
  7. Lei FM, Wei GA, Zhao HF, Yin ZH and Lu JL. 2007. China subregional avian endemism and biodiversity conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 16:1119-1130.
  8. Qu YH, Ericson PGP, Lei FM#,  Gebauer A, Kaiser M and Helbig A. 2006. Molecular phylogenetic relationship of snow finch complex (genera Montifringilla, Pyrgilauda and Onychostruthus) from the Tibetan plateau. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40:218-226.
  9. Qu YH, Ericson PG, Lei FM and Li SH. 2005. Postglacial colonization of the Tibet plateau inferred from the matrilineal genetic structure of the endemic red-necked snow finch, Pyrgilauda ruficollis. Molecular Ecology 14:1767-1781.
  10. Kou Z, Lei FM#, Yu J, Fan ZJ, Yin ZH, Jia CX, Xiong KJ, Sun YH, Zhang XW, Wu XM, Gao XB and Li TX#. 2005. New genotype avian influenza H5N1 viruses were isolated from tree sparrows in China. Journal of Virology 79(24):15460-15466.
  11. Liu JH, Xiao HX, Lei F(co-first author), Zhu Q, Zhang XW, Zhang XL, Zhao D, Wang G, Feng Y, Ma J, Liu W, Wang J, Gao GF. 2005. Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus infection in migratory birds. Science 309:1206.